Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 20
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Yang, Shigui Tian, Guo Cui, Yuanxia Ding, Cheng Deng, Min Yu, Chengbo Xu, Kaijin Ren, Jingjing Yao, Jun Li, Yiping Cao, Qing Chen, Ping Xie, Tiansheng Wang, Chencheng Wang, Bing Mao, Chen Ruan, Bing Jiang, Tian’an and Li, Lanjuan 2016. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, p. 27251.

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen Berger, Peter Lepperdinger, Günter and Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix 2015. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination. Aging Cell, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 309.

    Macias, Vasco Coelho and Cunha, Daniela 2013. Psoriasis triggered by tetanus-diphtheria vaccination. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 164.

    Klein, Sabra L Jedlicka, Anne and Pekosz, Andrew 2010. The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 10, Issue. 5, p. 338.

    Sangaré, Laura Manhart, Lisa Zehrung, Darin and Wang, Chia C. 2009. Intradermal hepatitis B vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine, Vol. 27, Issue. 12, p. 1777.

    Cook, Ian Francis 2008. Sexual dimorphism of humoral immunity with human vaccines. Vaccine, Vol. 26, Issue. 29-30, p. 3551.

    Sangfelt, Per Uhnoo, Ingrid Reichard, Olle and Weiland, Ola 2008. A low-dose intradermal hepatitis B vaccine programme in health-care workers and students is highly effective and cost saving: A retrospective follow-up survey in the clinical setting. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 43, Issue. 4, p. 465.

    Friedrich, N. Kramer, A. Mentel, R. Gürtler, L. John, U. and Völzke, H. 2007. No influence of atopic diseases on antibody titres following tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B immunisation among adults. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 26, Issue. 12, p. 887.

    Cook, Ian F. Barr, Ian Hartel, Gunter Pond, Dimity and Hampson, Alan W. 2006. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza vaccine administered by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection in elderly adults. Vaccine, Vol. 24, Issue. 13, p. 2395.

    Fabrizi, F. Martin, P. Dixit, V. Bunnapradist, S. and Dulai, G. 2004. Meta-analysis: the effect of age on immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in end-stage renal disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 20, Issue. 10, p. 1053.

    Kyi, Khin Pyone Oo, Khin May Htun, Moh Moh Tun, Win Maw Aye, Khin Khin Oo, San San Lwin, Khin Ohmar and Nyunt, Sandar 2002. Clinical trial of the intradermal administration of hepatitis B vaccine produced at the Department of Medical Research, Myanmar. Vaccine, Vol. 20, Issue. 11-12, p. 1649.

    Fisher, Monica A Eklund, Stephen A James, Sherman A and Lin, Xihong 2001. Adverse Events Associated with Hepatitis B Vaccine in U.S. Children Less Than Six Years of Age, 1993 and 1994. Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 13.

    Chen, X.Q. Bülbül, M. de Gast, G.C. van Loon, A.M. Nalin, D.R. and van Hattum, J. 1997. Immunogencity of two versus three injections of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in adults. Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 260.

    Leroux-Roels, Geert Desombere, Isabelle Cobbaut, Luc Petit, Marie-Anne Desmons, Pierre Hauser, Pierre Delem, Andrée De Grave, Danny and Safary, Assad 1997. Hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen and selected preS1 and preS2 sequences 2. Immunogenicity in poor responders to hepatitis B vaccines. Vaccine, Vol. 15, Issue. 16, p. 1732.

    Marcus, Esther-Lee and Tur-Kaspa, Ran 1997. Viral Hepatitis in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 45, Issue. 6, p. 755.

    Struve, J. Weiland, Ola Fosgren, Marianne Aronsson, B. and Frenning, B. 1995. Response to a booster dose 18 months after a low anti-HBs response (10–99 IU/l) to three doses of intradermally or intramuscularly administered recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Infection, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 42.

    Struve, Johan Aronsson, Bo Frenning, Bertil Forsgren, Marianne and Weiland, Ola 1994. Seroconversion after Additional Vaccine Doses to Non-responders to Three Doses of Intradermally or Intramuscularly Administered Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 468.

    McMaster, Kitt R. Roper, Judy K. and Carter, John B. 1993. Intradermal hepatitis B vaccination in a 300-bed primary care hospital: Experience with a recombinant vaccine in a four-dose schedule. American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 21, Issue. 6, p. 283.

    Struve, Johan Aronsson, Bo Frenning, Bertil Granath, Fredrik Sydow, Madeleine Von and Weiland, Ola 1992. Intramuscular versus Intradermal Administration of a Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine: A Comparison of Response Rates and Analysis of Factors Influencing the Antibody Response. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 423.

    Dittmann, S. 1991.


Intradermal hepatitis B immunization with yeast-derived vaccine: serological response by sex and age

  • C. A. Morris (a1), P. R. Oliver (a1), F. Reynolds (a1) and J. B. Selkon (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

The efficacy and acceptability of yeast-derived recombinant hepatitis B vaccine given by the intradermal route was investigated in 221 health care volunteers. Two hundred and sixteen received a full course of three doses of vaccine. Only one subject was withdrawn because of a significant adverse reaction (psoriasis). The vaccine stimulated an antibody response in 81%. The response to the vaccine was better in women than in men (87% compared with 71%, p = 0·007) and in women below the age of 40 years compared with older women (94% compared with 76%, p = 0·01). For men the response showed a sequential decline with age for each decade (90% responders from age 29 or less, 72% aged 30—39 and 65% aged 40 or more, p = 0·04). Retrospective enquiry showed that over 90% had found the intradermal route acceptable and 59% would prefer vaccine by the intradermal route in preference to intramuscular notwithstanding local reactions. Although the seroconversion rate was of a high order in younger women the antibody titres were not high with only 9 of 215 recipients developing titres >1000 mIU/ml, a level which could be expected to ensure prolonged immunity. A fourth intradermal dose of vaccine given to 60 volunteers who had shown a low response (<38 mIU/ml) or no serological response to a three-dose course stimulated a good booster effect (to 150—600 mIU/ml) in only 5 (8%).

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3.JL. Dienstag Low dose intradermal hepatitis B vaccine. JAMA 1986; 256: 351.

9.G Fadda , A Maida , C Masia , G Obino , G Romano , E. Spano Efficacy of hepatitis B immunisation with reduced intradermal doses. Eur J Epidemiol 1987; 3: 176–80.

10.NA Halsey , EJ Reppert , HS Margolis , DP Francis , HA. Fields Intradermal hepatitis B vaccination in an abbreviated schedule. Vaccine 1986: 4: 228–32.

12.HC Whittle , WM Lamb , RW. Ryder Trials of intradermal hepatitis B vaccine in Gambian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1987: 7: 69.

13.EA Ayoola , MA Atoba , AO. Johnson Intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection in an endemic area (Nigeria), two year results. Arch Virol 1986: 91: 291–6.

15.MM Horowitz , WM Ershler , WP McKinney , RJ. Battiola Duration of immunity after hepatitis B vaccination: efficacy of low-dose booster vaccine. Ann Intern Med 1988: 108: 185–9.

16.S Nagafuchi , S Kashiwagi , T Lnoue , S. Imayama Development of skin reactions to hepatitis B vaccine in man. Microbiol Immunol 1984: 28: 275–9.

20.J Alexander , WH. Stimson Sex hormones and the course of parasitic infection. Parasitology Today, 1988; 4: Part 7; 189–93.

21.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Trends: safety of hepatitis B vaccine. J Amer Med Assoc 1983, 249: 1812.

23.WJ. Saxonhouse Hepatitis vaccine. J Am Dent Assoc 1985: 110: 670.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *