The epidemiology and clinical features of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease in Queensland children was investigated in response to anecdotal evidence of an increase in frequency and severity of this condition. A retrospective review of clinical records of all cases of iGAS disease notified to Queensland Health aged 0–18 years during a 5-year period was conducted. The annualized incidence of iGAS was 3·5/100 000 for the total population aged 0–18 and 13·2/100 000 for the Indigenous population of similar age. The annualized incidence was highest in Indigenous infants but no increase in frequency or severity of iGAS infections was observed. Findings included an increased prevalence in Indigenous children particularly in those aged <1 year, a significant male preponderance, lack of seasonal variation and an association with blunt trauma. Further studies are required to confirm and investigate these findings and to define specific risk factors in high-risk groups.
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