Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Burt, Felicity J Goedhals, Dominique and Mathengtheng, Lehlohonolo 2014. Arboviruses in southern Africa: are we missing something?. Future Virology, Vol. 9, Issue. 11, p. 993.

    Chitanga, Simbarashe Gaff, Holly and Mukaratirwa, Samson 2014. Tick-borne pathogens of potential zoonotic importance in the southern African Region. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Vol. 85, Issue. 1,

    Lasecka, Lidia and Baron, Michael D. 2014. The molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses. Archives of Virology, Vol. 159, Issue. 6, p. 1249.

    Lutomiah, Joel Musila, Lillian Makio, Albina Ochieng, Caroline Koka, Hellen Chepkorir, Edith Mutisya, James Mulwa, Francis Khamadi, Samoel Miller, Barry R. Bast, Joshua Schnabel, David Wurapa, Eyako K. and Sang, Rosemary 2014. Ticks and Tick-Borne Viruses From Livestock Hosts in Arid and Semiarid Regions of the Eastern and Northeastern Parts of Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 269.

    Mathengtheng, Lehlohonolo and Burt, Felicity J. 2014. Use of Envelope Domain III Protein for Detection and Differentiation of Flaviviruses in the Free State Province, South Africa. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 261.

    Bakshi, S. Holzer, B. Bridgen, A. McMullan, G. Quinn, D. G. and Baron, M. D. 2013. Dugbe virus ovarian tumour domain interferes with ubiquitin/ISG15-regulated innate immune cell signalling. Journal of General Virology, Vol. 94, Issue. Pt_2, p. 298.

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula Lutomiah, Joel Obanda, Vincent Gakuya, Francis Mutisya, James Mulwa, Francis Michuki, George Chepkorir, Edith Fischer, Anne Venter, Marietjie and Sang, Rosemary 2013. Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 13, Issue. 9, p. 637.

    Rodrigues, R. Telles, J.-N. Essere, K. Ducournau, C. Roqueplo, C. Levieuge, A. Davoust, B. Parola, P. Paranhos-Baccalà, G. and Peyrefitte, C.N. 2011. Development of a one step real time RT-PCR assay to detect and quantify Dugbe virus. Journal of Virological Methods, Vol. 176, Issue. 1-2, p. 74.

    Kraus, Annette A and Mirazimi, Ali 2010. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Future Virology, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 469.

    Peyrefitte, C. N. Perret, M. Garcia, S. Rodrigues, R. Bagnaud, A. Lacote, S. Crance, J.-M. Vernet, G. Garin, D. Bouloy, M. and Paranhos-Baccala, G. 2010. Differential activation profiles of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus- and Dugbe virus-infected antigen-presenting cells. Journal of General Virology, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 189.

    Soares-Weiser, Karla Thomas, Sherine G, Gail Thomson and Garner, Paul 2010. Ribavirin for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    Crabtree, Mary B. Sang, Rosemary and Miller, Barry R. 2009. Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the FamilyBunyaviridae, GenusNairovirus, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 147.

    Mehrabi Tavana, A. and Tavakkoli, H.R. 2008. Review on Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in the World. International Journal of Virology, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 26.

    Sang, Rosemary Onyango, Clayton Gachoya, John Mabinda, Ernest Konongoi, Samson Ofula, Victor Dunster, Lee Okoth, Fred Coldren, Rodney Tesh, Robert Travassos da Rosa, Amelia Finkbeiner, Stacy Wang, David Crabtree, Mary and Miller, Barry 2006. Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, Issue. 7, p. 1074.

    Sang, Rosemary Onyango, Clayton Gachoya, John Mabinda, Ernest Konongoi, Samson Ofula, Victor Dunster, Lee Okoth, Fred Coldren, Rodney Tesh, Robert Travassos da Rosa, Amelia Finkbeiner, Stacy Wang, David Crabtree, Mary and Miller, Barry 2006. Tickborne Arbovirus Surveillance in Market Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, Issue. 7, p. 1074.

    Bridgen, Anne Dalrymple, David A. Weber, Friedemann and Elliott, Richard M. 2004. Inhibition of Dugbe nairovirus replication by human MxA protein. Virus Research, Vol. 99, Issue. 1, p. 47.

    Bridgen, Anne Dalrymple, David A. and Elliott, Richard M. 2002. Dugbe Nairovirus S Segment: Correction of Published Sequence and Comparison of Five Isolates. Virology, Vol. 294, Issue. 2, p. 364.

    Kuno, Goro 2001. Persistence of arboviruses and antiviral antibodies in vertebrate hosts: its occurrence and impacts. Reviews in Medical Virology, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 165.


Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia

  • F. J. Burt (a1), D. C. Spencer (a2), P. A. Leman (a1), B. Patterson (a1) and R. Swanepoel (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

In the course of investigating suspected cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa patients were encountered who had been bitten by ticks, but who lacked evidence of infection with Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus or non-viral tick-borne agents. Cattle sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay to determine whether tick-borne viruses other than CCHF occur in the country. The prevalence of antibody in cattle sera was 905/2116 (42·8%) for CCHF virus, 70/1358 (5·2%) for Dugbe, 21/1358 (1·5%) for louping ill, 6/450 (1·3%) for West Nile, 7/1358 (0·5%) for Nairobi sheep disease, 3/625 (0·5%) for Kadam and 2/450 (0·4%) for Chenuda. No reactions were recorded with Hazara, Bahig, Bhanja, Thogoto and Dhori viruses. The CCHF findings confirmed previous observations that the virus is widely prevalent within the distribution range of ticks of the genus Hyalomma, while antibody activity to Dugbe antigen was detected only within the distribution range of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum. Cross-reactivity for the nairoviruses, Hazara, Nairobi sheep disease and Dugbe, was detected in serum samples from 3/72 human patients with confirmed CCHF infection, and serum from 1/162 other patients reacted monospecifically with Dugbe antigen. The latter patient suffered from febrile illness with prolonged thrombocytopenia.

Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence: F. J. Burt, National Institute for Virology, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, South Africa.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3.R Swanepoel , DE Gill , AJ Shepherd , PA Leman , JH Mynhardt , S Harvey . The clinical pathology of Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11: S794800.

12.VK Ward , AC Marriott , TF Booth , Ghorr El , PA Nuttall . Detection of an arbovirus in an invertebrate host using the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 1990; 30: 291300.

13.J Casals , GH Tignor . Neutralisation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests with Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1974; 145: 960–6.

14.AJ Shepherd , R Swanepoel , PA Leman . Antibody response in Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11: S8016.

19.AJ Georges , JL Lesbordes , MC Georges-Courbot , DMY Meunier , JP Gonzalez . Fatal hepatitis from West Nile virus. Ann Inst Pasteur/Virol 1987; 138: 237–44.

21.VK Ward , AC Marriott , T Polyzoni , AA El-Ghorr , A Antoniadis , PA Nuttall . Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of Dugbe virus and antigenic cross-reactions with other nairoviruses. Virus Res 1992; 24: 223–29.

22.J Casals , GH Tignor . The Nairovirus genus: serological relationships. Intervirology 1980; 14: 144–7.

23.FG Davies , DM Jesset , S Otieno . The antibody response of sheep following infection with Nairobi sheep disease virus. J Comp Pathol 1976; 86: 497502.

25.DL Moore , OR Causey , DE Carey , Arthropod-borne viral infections of man in Nigeria, 1964–1970. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1975; 69: 4964.

29.FG Davies , J Mungai , T Shaw . A Nairobi sheep disease vaccine. Vet Record 1974; 94: 1280.

30.RM Edelsten . The distribution and prevalence of Nairobi sheep disease and other tick-borne infections of sheep and goats in northern Somalia. Trop Anim Hlth Prod 1975; 7: 2934.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *