Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sinha, Ritam Koley, Hemanta Nag, Dhrubajyoti Mitra, Soma Mukhopadhyay, Asish K. and Chattopadhyay, Brajadulal 2015. Pentavalent outer membrane vesicles of Vibrio cholerae induce adaptive immune response and protective efficacy in both adult and passive suckling mice models. Microbes and Infection, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 215.


Large outbreak of cholera caused by El Tor variant Vibrio cholerae O1 in the eastern coast of Odisha, India during 2009

  • B. B. PAL (a1), H. K. KHUNTIA (a1), S. K. SAMAL (a1), A. S. KERKETTA (a1), S. K. KAR (a1), M. KARMAKAR (a2) and B. PATTNAIK (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 06 March 2013

A large outbreak of cholera reported during April–July 2009 in the Kendrapada district of Odisha, India was investigated. Forty-one rectal swabs and 41 water samples, collected from diarrhoeal patients and from different villages were bacteriologically analysed for the isolation of bacterial enteriopathogens, antibiogram profile and detection of various toxic genes. The bacteriological analysis of rectal swabs and environmental water samples revealed the presence of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. The V. cholerae strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on V. cholerae strains revealed the presence of ctxA and tcpA genes. The mismatch amplification of mutation assay (MAMA) PCR on clinical and environmental isolates of V. cholerae revealed that the strains were El Tor biotype, which harboured the ctxB gene of the classical strain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results indicated that the V. cholerae isolates belonged to the same clone. This investigation gives a warning that the El Tor variant of V. cholerae has spread to the coastal district causing a large outbreak that requires close monitoring and surveillance on diarrhoeal outbreaks in Odisha.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr H. K. Khuntia, Microbiology Division, Regional Medical research Centre (ICMR), Bhubaneswar 751023, Odisha, India. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.A Safa , Genetic characteristics of Matlab variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 that are hybrids between classical and El Tor biotypes. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 55: 15631569.

2.M Ansaruzzaman , Cholera in Mozambique, variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 20572059.

3.GB Nair , Cholera due to altered El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006; 44: 42114213.

4.A Safa , Vibrio cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor strains, Asia and Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 987988.

6.CS Chin , The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 364: 3342.

7.N Taneja , Outbreaks caused by new variant of V. cholerae O1 El Tor, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 352353.

8.P Kumar , A large cholera outbreak due to a new cholera toxin variant of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype in Orissa, Eastern India. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2009; 58: 234238.

9.BB Pal , Epidemics of severe cholera caused by El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa possessing the ctxB gene of the classical biotype in Orissa, India. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 14: 384389.

12.HK Khuntia , BB Pal , GP Chhotray . Quadruplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of biotype, serotype, toxigenic potential and central regulating factors of Vibrio cholerae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 23992401.

13.M Morita , Development and validation of a mismatch amplification mutation PCR assay to monitor the dissemination of an emerging variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor. Microbiology Immunology 2008; 52: 314317.

14.GP Chhotray , Incidence and molecular analysis of V. cholerae associated with cholera outbreak subsequently to the super cyclone in Orissa, India. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 131138.

16.AK Goel , Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae outbreak strains with altered El Tor biotype from southern India. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2010; 26: 281287.

18.P Garg , Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor among hospitalized patients with cholera in Calcutta, India. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006; 45: 16051606.

19.BV Krishna , AB Patil , MR Chandrasekhar . Fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated during a cholera outbreak in India. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006; 100: 224226.

20.AK Goel , SC Jiang . Genetic determinants of virulence, antibiogram and altered biotype among the Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from different cholera outbreaks in India. Infection Genetics and Evolution 2010; 10: 815819.

21.MV Jesudason . Change in serotype and appearance of tetracycline resistance in V. cholerae O1 in Vellore, South India. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 24: 152153.

22.F Sabeena , In vitro susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains associated with an outbreak of cholera in Kerala, Southern India. Journal of Antimicrobial and Chemotherapy 2001; 47: 361362.

23.JW Beaber , MK Waldor . Identification of operators and promoters that control SXT conjugative transfer. Journal of Bacteriology 2004; 186: 59455949.

24.JW Beaber , B Hochhut , MK Waldor . Genomics and functional analysis of SXT, an integrating antibiotic resistance gene transfer elements derived from Vibrio cholerae. Journal of Bacteriology 2002; 184: 42594269.

26.MK Waldor , JJ Mekalanos . Lysogenic conversion by a filamentous phage encoding cholera toxin. Science 1996; 272: 19101914.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *