Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Conraths, Franz J. and Deplazes, Peter 2015. Echinococcus multilocularis: Epidemiology, surveillance and state-of-the-art diagnostics from a veterinary public health perspective. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 213, Issue. 3-4, p. 149.

    Gottstein, Bruno Stojkovic, Marija Vuitton, Dominique A. Millon, Laurence Marcinkute, Audrone and Deplazes, Peter 2015. Threat of alveolar echinococcosis to public health – a challenge for Europe. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 31, Issue. 9, p. 407.

    Maas, M. Dam-Deisz, W.D.C. van Roon, A.M. Takumi, K. and van der Giessen, J.W.B. 2014. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 206, Issue. 3-4, p. 167.

    Tielemans, Eric Manavella, Coralie Visser, Martin Theodore Chester, S. and Rosentel, Joseph 2014. Efficacy in cats of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, praziquantel, against induced infestations of Echinococcus multilocularis. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 202, Issue. 1-2, p. 26.

    Piarroux, Martine Piarroux, Renaud Knapp, Jenny Bardonnet, Karine Dumortier, Jérôme Watelet, Jérôme Gerard, Alain Beytout, Jean Abergel, Armand Bresson-Hadni, Solange and Gaudart, Jean 2013. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 721.


Mapping the increasing risk of human alveolar echinococcosis in Limburg, The Netherlands

  • K. TAKUMI (a1), D. HEGGLIN (a2), P. DEPLAZES (a2), B. GOTTSTEIN (a3), P. TEUNIS (a1) and J. VAN DER GIESSEN (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 07 July 2011

The parasite Echinococcus multilocularis was first detected in The Netherlands in 1996 and repeated studies have shown that the parasite subsequently spread in the local population of foxes in the province of Limburg. It was not possible to quantify the human risk of alveolar echinococcosis because no relationship between the amount of parasite eggs in the environment and the probability of infection in humans was known. Here, we used the spread of the parasite in The Netherlands as a predictor, together with recently published historical records of the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in Switzerland, to achieve a relative quantification of the risk. Based on these analyses, the human risk in Limburg was simulated and up to three human cases are predicted by 2018. We conclude that the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in The Netherlands might have changed from a period of negligible risk in the past to a period of increasing risk in the forthcoming years.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr K. Takumi, RIVM, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.P Kern , European echinococcosis registry: human alveolar echinococcosis, Europe, 1982–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 343349.

2.A Schweiger , Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 878882.

3.M Chautan , D Pontier , M Artois . Role of rabies in recent demographic changes in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations in europe. Mammalia 2000; 64: 391410.

4.T Romig . Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe – state of the art. Veterinary Research Communications 2009; 33 (Suppl. 1): 3134.

5.K Takumi , Evidence for an increasing presence of echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in the Netherlands. International Journal for Parasitology 2008; 38: 571578.

6.S Hofer , High prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Parasitology 2000; 120: 135142.

8.CM Kapel , Reproductive potential of Echinococcus multilocularis in experimentally infected foxes, dogs, raccoon dogs and cats. International Journal for Parasitology 2006; 36: 7986.

9.FH Borgsteede . Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the Netherlands. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 1984; 70: 281285.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *