Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Molecular and spatial epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis: source association and genotype-related risk factors

  • P. MULLNER (a1) (a2), T. SHADBOLT (a3), J. M. COLLINS-EMERSON (a1), A. C. MIDWINTER (a1), S. E. F. SPENCER (a1), J. MARSHALL (a1), P. E. CARTER (a4), D. M. CAMPBELL (a2), D. J. WILSON (a5), S. HATHAWAY (a2), R. PIRIE (a4) and N. P. FRENCH (a1)...
Summary

The epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis is complex but in recent years understanding of this disease has advanced considerably. Despite being a major public health concern in many countries, the presence of multiple hosts, genotypes and transmission pathways has made it difficult to identify and quantify the determinants of human infection and disease. This has delayed the development of successful intervention programmes for this disease in many countries including New Zealand, a country with a comparatively high, yet until recently poorly understood, rate of notified disease. This study investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni at the genotype-level over a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 using multilocus sequence typing. By combining epidemiological surveillance and population genetics, a dominant, internationally rare strain of C. jejuni (ST474) was identified, and most human cases (65·7%) were found to be caused by only seven different genotypes. Source association of genotypes was used to identify risk factors at the genotype-level through multivariable logistic regression and a spatial model. Poultry-associated cases were more likely to be found in urban areas compared to rural areas. In particular young children in rural areas had a higher risk of infection with ruminant strains than their urban counterparts. These findings provide important information for the implementation of pathway-specific control strategies.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr P. Mullner, Molecular Epidemiology and Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, NZ. (Email: petra@epi-interactive.com)
References
Hide All
1.Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR). Public Health Surveillance – EpiSurv. (http://wwwsurvesrcrinz/episurv/index/php). Accessed 16 January 2009).
2.Baker, M, et al. Regulation of chicken contamination urgently needed to control New Zealand's serious campylobacteriosis epidemic. New Zealand Medical Journal 2006; 119, no. 1243.
3.McTavish, SM, et al. Wide geographical distribution of internationally rare Campylobacter clones within New Zealand. Epidemiology and Infection 2008; 136: 12441252.
4.Chrystal, ND, et al. Counts of Campylobacter spp. and prevalence of Salmonella associated with New Zealand broiler carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 2008; 71: 25262532.
5.Snow, LC, et al. Survey of the prevalence of Salmonella on commercial broiler farms in the United Kingdom, 2005/06. Veterinary Record 2008; 163: 649654.
6.Wong, TL, et al. Prevalence, numbers, and subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in uncooked retail meat samples. Journal of Food Protection 2007; 70: 566573.
7.Gillespie, IA. Milkborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, England and Wales, 1992–2000. Epidemiology and Infection 2003; 130: 461468.
8.French, N, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from wild bird faecal material in children's playgrounds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008; 75: 779783.
9.Savill, MG, et al. Enumeration of Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2001; 91: 3846.
10.Gillespie, IA, et al. Demographic determinants for Campylobacter infection in England and Wales: implications for future epidemiological studies. Epidemiology and Infection 2008; 136: 17171725.
11.Stafford, RJ, et al. Population-attributable risk estimates for risk factors associated with Campylobacter infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 895901.
12.Lake, RJ, et al. Estimated number of cases of foodborne infectious disease in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal 2000; 113: 278281.
13.Crump, JA, Murdoch, DR, Baker, MG. Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: The New Zealand perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 767772.
14.Statistics New Zealand. International visitors (http://searchstatsgovtnz/search?w=international%20visitors). Accessed 16 September 2009.
15.Devane, ML, et al. The occurrence of Campylobacter subtypes in environmental reservoirs and potential transmission routes. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2005; 98: 980990.
16.Oporto, B, et al. Prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle sheep and swine farms. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2007; 103: 977984.
17.Gillespie, IA, et al. A case-case comparison of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 111118.
18.McCarthy, ND, et al. A three-year population based investigation of human Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology using sequence typing and patient survey data. Zoonoses and Public Health 2007; 54: 37.
19.Murray, M. Determinants of cluster distribution in the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2002; 99: 15381543.
20.Dingle, KE, et al. Multilocus sequence typing system for Campylobacter jejuni. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2001; 39: 1423.
21.Sopwith, W, et al. Identification of potential environmentally adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 17691773.
22.Mullner, P, et al. Source attribution of food borne zoonoses in New Zealand: a modified Hald model. Risk Analysis 2009; 29: 970984.
23.Sheppard, SK, et al. Campylobacter genotyping to determine the source of human infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009; 48: 10721078.
24.Sullivan, CB, Diggle, MA, Clarke, SC. Multilocus sequence typing – data analysis in clinical microbiology and public health. Molecular Biotechnology 2005; 29: 245254.
25.Urwin, R, Maiden, MCJ. Multilocus sequence typing: a tool for global epidemiology. Trends in Microbiology 2003; 11: 479487.
26.Mullner, P, et al. Assigning the source of human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: a comparative genetic and epidemiological approach. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2009 (in press).
27.Wilson, DJ, et al. Tracing the source of campylobacteriosis. PLoS Genetics 2008; 4: e1000203.
28.Statistics New Zealand. Population Census 2006 (http://wwwstatsgovtnz/Census/2006CensusHomePageaspx). Accessed 16 September 2009.
29.Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR). Public Health Surveillance – EpiSurv (http://wwwsurvesrcrinz/episurv/index/php). Accessed on 16 January 2009.
30.Lake, R, Whyte, R, Kliem, C.Evaluation of foodborne disease outbreaks/human health surveillance interface. New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA), 2005.
31.R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, version 2.7.0. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2005.
32.French N, Molecular Epidemiology and Veterinary Public Health Group Hopkirk Institute. Enhancing surveillance of potentially foodborne enteric diseases in New Zealand: human campylobacteriosis in the Manawatu (2008) (http://wwwnzfsagovtnz/science/research-projects/Campy_Attribution_Manawatupdf). Accessed 16 March 2009.
34.Besag, JE, York, JC, Mollié, A. Bayesian image restoration with two applications in spatial statistics (with discussion). Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 1991; 43: 159.
35.Strachan, NJC, et al. Attribution of Campylobacter infections in Northeast Scotland to specific sources by use of multilocus sequence typing. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 14.
36.Australian Government. Department of Health and Ageing. Australia's notifiable diseases staus, 2006: Annual report of the National Notifable Diseases Surveillance System. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2008; 32.
37.Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. FoodNet Report 2006 (http://wwwcdcgov/foodnet/reportshtm). Accessed 25 January 2009).
38.European Food Safety Authority. Community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2006 (http://wwwefsaeuropaeu/efsa-locale-1178620753812_1178671312912htm). Accessed 25 January 2009.
39.Baker, MG, Sneyd, E, Wilson, NA. Is the major increase in notified campylobacteriosis in New Zealand real? Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 163170.
40.Nylen, G, et al. The seasonal distribution of Campylobacter infection in nine European countries and New Zealand. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 383390.
41.Sheppard, SK, et al. Campylobacter from retail poultry: MLST analysis and the origin of human infection. Zoonoses and Public Health 2007; 54: 36–36.
42.Gormley, FJ, et al. Has retail chicken played a role in the decline of human campylobacteriosis? Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2008; 74: 383390.
43.Sopwith, W, et al. Campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types in humans, Northwest England, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 15001507.
44.Gilpin, BJ, et al. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in bovine faeces on pasture. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2009; 48: 162166.
45.Gilpin, BJ, et al. The transmission of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. to people living or working on dairy farms in New Zealand. Zoonoses and Public Health 2008; 55: 352360.
46.Forbes, KJ, et al. Campylobacter immunity and coinfection following a large outbreak in a farming community. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 111116.
47.Havelaar, AH, et al. Immunity to Campylobacter: its role in risk assessment and epidemiology. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 2009; 35: 122.
48.Dingle, KE, et al. Sequence typing and comparison of population biology of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 340347.
49.Best, EL, et al. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni from faeces using single nucleotide polymorphisms. Epidemiology and Infection 2007; 135: 839846.
50.Clark, CG, et al. Use of the Oxford multilocus sequence typing protocol and sequencing of the flagellin short variable region to characterize isolates from a large outbreak of waterborne Campylobacter sp. strains in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 20802091.
51.Pope, C, et al. Epidemiology, relative invasive ability, molecular characterization, and competitive performance of Campylobacter jejuni strains in the chicken gut. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73: 79597966.
52.Taboada, EN, et al. Comparative genomic assessment of multi-locus sequence typing: rapid accumulation of genomic heterogeneity among clonal isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008; 8.
53.Hearnden, M, et al. The regionality of campylobacteriosis seasonality in New Zealand. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2003; 13: 337348.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 71 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 383 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.