Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 13
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kato, Satomi and Kissinger, Jessica C. 2013. Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes.


    Cabada, Miguel M and White, A Clinton 2010. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis: do we know what we think we know?. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 23, Issue. 5, p. 494.


    2015. Outbreaks of Illness Associated with Recreational Water-United States, 2011-2012. American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 15, Issue. 9, p. 2517.


    Kershenobich, David Robles-Diaz, Guillermo and Francis, Juan Miguel Abdo 2012. Textbook of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.


    Guo, Yaqiong Tang, Kevin Rowe, Lori A Li, Na Roellig, Dawn M Knipe, Kristine Frace, Michael Yang, Chunfu Feng, Yaoyu and Xiao, Lihua 2015. Comparative genomic analysis reveals occurrence of genetic recombination in virulent Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and telomeric gene duplications in Cryptosporidium parvum. BMC Genomics, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,


    Zambriski, J.A. Nydam, D.V. Wilcox, Z.J. Bowman, D.D. Mohammed, H.O. and Liotta, J.L. 2013. Cryptosporidium parvum: Determination of ID50 and the dose–response relationship in experimentally challenged dairy calves. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 197, Issue. 1-2, p. 104.


    Legrand, F Grenouillet, F Larosa, F Dalle, F Saas, P Millon, L Deconinck, E and Rohrlich, P S 2011. Diagnosis and treatment of digestive cryptosporidiosis in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a prospective single centre study. Bone Marrow Transplantation, Vol. 46, Issue. 6, p. 858.


    Zambrano, L. D. Levy, K. Menezes, N. P. and Freeman, M. C. 2014. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 108, Issue. 6, p. 313.


    POLGREEN, P. M. SPARKS, J. D. POLGREEN, L. A. YANG, M. HARRIS, M. L. PENTELLA, M. A. and CAVANAUGH, J. E. 2012. A statewide outbreak of Cryptosporidium and its association with the distribution of public swimming pools. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 140, Issue. 08, p. 1439.


    Torgerson, Paul R. de Silva, Nilanthi R. Fèvre, Eric M. Kasuga, Fumiko Rokni, Mohammad B. Zhou, Xiao-Nong Sripa, Banchob Gargouri, Neyla Willingham, Arve Lee and Stein, Claudia 2014. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 30, Issue. 1, p. 20.


    Lapen, D.R. Schmidt, P. Thomas, J.L. Edge, T. Flemming, C. Keithlin, J. Neumann, N. Pollari, F. Ruecker, N. Simhon, A. Topp, E. Wilkes, G. and Pintar, K.D.M. 2016. Towards a more accurate quantitative assessment of seasonal Cryptosporidium infection risks in surface waters using species and genotype information. Water Research,


    Putignani, Lorenza and Menichella, Donato 2010. Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan PathogenCryptosporidium. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2010, p. 1.


    POLLOCK, K. G. J. YOUNG, D. ROBERTSON, C. AHMED, S. and RAMSAY, C. N. 2013. Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland. Epidemiology and Infection, p. 1.


    ×

Multiple risk factors associated with a large statewide increase in cryptosporidiosis

  • A. L. VALDERRAMA (a1) (a2), M. C. HLAVSA (a3), A. CRONQUIST (a4), S. COSGROVE (a4), S. P. JOHNSTON (a3), J. M. ROBERTS (a3), M. L. STOCK (a5), L. XIAO (a3), K. XAVIER (a4) and M. J. BEACH (a3)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809002842
  • Published online: 27 May 2009
Abstract
SUMMARY

Cryptosporidium species have emerged as a major cause of outbreaks of diarrhoea and have been associated with consumption of contaminated recreational and drinking water and food as well as contact with infected attendees of child-care programmes. In August 2007, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment detected an increase in cryptosporidiosis cases over baseline values. We conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors for infection and collected stool specimens from ill persons for microscopy and molecular analysis. Laboratory-confirmed cases (n=47) were more likely to have swallowed untreated water from a lake, river, or stream [adjusted matched odds ratio (aOR) 8·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3–48·1], have had exposure to recreational water (aOR 4·6, 95% CI 1·4–14·6), or have had contact with a child in a child-care programme or in diapers (aOR 3·8, 95% CI 1·5–9·6). Although exposure to recreational water is commonly implicated in summertime cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, this study demonstrates that investigations of increased incidence of cases in summer should also examine other potential risk factors. This study emphasizes the need for public health education efforts that address the multiple transmission routes for Cryptosporidium and appropriate prevention measures to avoid future transmission.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: A. L. Valderrama, Ph.D., R.N., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, MS K-47. (Email: AValderrama@cdc.gov)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.XM Chen , Cryptosporidiosis. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 346: 17231731.

11.BG Blackburn , Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 684686.

12.PS Millard , An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider. Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 272: 15921596.

13.ES Quiroz , An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis linked to a foodhandler. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2000; 181: 695700.

16.G Turabelidze , Communitywide outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in rural Missouri associated with attendance at child care centers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2007; 161: 878883.

20.L Xiao , Identification of 5 types of Cryptosporidium parasites in children in Lima, Peru. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001; 183: 492497.

21.IM Sulaiman , Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 28052809.

22.TF Jones . Changing challenges of bacterial enteric infection in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 199: 465466.

28.PR Hunter , Sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 12411249.

30.SL Roy , Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004; 42: 29442951.

31.D Casemore . Towards a US national estimate of the risk of endemic waterborne disease – sero-epidemiologic studies. Journal of Water Health 2006; 4 (Suppl. 2): 121163.

33.LM Fox , LD Saravolatz . Nitazoxanide: a new thiazolide antiparasitic agent. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005; 40: 11731180.

34.VR Anderson , MP Curran . Nitazoxanide: a review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Drugs 2007; 67: 19471967.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: