Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Prevalence and clinical correlations of genetic subtypes of Giardia lamblia in an urban setting

  • A. S. BREATHNACH (a1), T. D. McHUGH (a2) and P. D. BUTCHER (a1)

Summary

The clinical significance of different genetic subtypes or assemblages of Giardia lamblia is uncertain. Cases of giardiasis in south-west London between 1999 and 2005 were studied, comparing molecular-typing results with clinical and epidemiological findings from routine surveillance. We identified 819 cases, of whom 389 returned surveillance questionnaires. A subset of 267 faecal samples was submitted for typing by sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and ribosomal RNA genes, and/or a separate duplex PCR of the tpi gene. Typing was successful in 199 (75%) samples by at least one of the molecular methods. Assemblage A accounted for 48 (24%) samples and Assemblage B for 145 (73%); six (3%) were mixed. Both assemblages had similar seasonality, age distribution and association with travel. Clinical features were available for 59 successfully typed cases: both assemblages caused similar illness, but Assemblage A was significantly more frequently associated with fever than Assemblage B.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prevalence and clinical correlations of genetic subtypes of Giardia lamblia in an urban setting
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prevalence and clinical correlations of genetic subtypes of Giardia lamblia in an urban setting
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prevalence and clinical correlations of genetic subtypes of Giardia lamblia in an urban setting
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr A. S. Breathnach, Centre for Infection, Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, St George's University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK. (Email: aodhan.breathnach@stgeorges.nhs.uk)

References

Hide All
1.Gilman, RH, et al. Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic Third World community. Lancet 1988; 1: 343345.
2.Pickering, LK, et al. Occurrence of Giardia lamblia in children in day care centers. Journal of Pediatrics 1984; 104: 522526.
3.Dennis, DT, et al. Endemic giardiasis in New Hampshire: a case-control study of environmental risks. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1993; 167: 13911395.
4.Gray, SF, Rouse, AR. Giardiasis – a cause of travellers' diarrhoea. Communicable Disease Report CDR Review 1992; 2: R45R47.
5.Ey, PL, et al. Genetic analysis of giardia from hoofed farm animals reveals artiodactyl-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 1997; 44: 626635.
6.Hopkins, RM, et al. Ribosomal RNA sequencing reveals differences between the genotypes of giardia isolates recovered from humans and dogs living in the same locality. Journal of Parasitology 1997; 83: 4451.
7.Monis, PT, et al. Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1999; 16: 11351144.
8.Caccio, SM, Ryan, U. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 2008; 160: 7580.
9.Caccio, SM, et al. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis reveals striking differences between assemblages A and B. International Journal for Parasitology 2008; 38: 15231531.
10.Ey, PL, Darby, JM. VSP417-6, a variant-specific surface protein encoded at a sixth locus within the vsp417 gene subfamily of Giardia intestinalis. International Journal for Parasitology 2002; 32: 425436.
11.Karanis, P, Ey, PL. Characterization of axenic isolates of Giardia intestinalis established from humans and animals in Germany. Parasitology Research 1998; 84: 442449.
12.Franzen, O, et al. Draft genome sequencing of Giardia intestinalis assemblage B isolate GS: is human giardiasis caused by two different species? PLoS Pathogens 2009; 5: e1000560.
13.Boom, R, et al. Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1990; 28: 495503.
14.McLauchlin, J, et al. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium strains from 218 patients with diarrhea diagnosed as having sporadic cryptosporidiosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1999; 37: 31533158.
15.Lawson, AJ, et al. Polymerase chain reaction detection and speciation of Campylobacter upsaliensis and C. helveticus in human faeces and comparison with culture techniques. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1997; 83: 375380.
16.Meyer, EA. Giardia lamblia: isolation and axenic cultivation. Experimental Parasitology 1976; 39: 101105.
17.Genbank. Genbank nucleotide sequence database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Accessed 9 March 2009.
18.European Bioinformatics Institute. (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/). Accessed 9 January 2008.
19.Netprimer analysis program. (http://www.premierbiosoft.com/netprimer/netprlaunch/netprlaunch.html). Accessed 2 July 2003.
20.Sanger, F, Nicklen, S, Coulson, AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1977; 74: 54635467.
21.Saitou, N, Nei, M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1987; 4: 406425.
22.Clustal. (http://www.clustal.org/). Accessed 10 January 2008.
23.Felsenstein, J.PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) Version 3.5c (http://bioweb2.pasteur.fr/phylogeny/intro-en.html#parsalgo). Accessed 10 January 2008.
24.Guoy, M.NJplot (http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/). Accessed 9 January 2008.
25.Amar, CF, et al. Sensitive PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in human feces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2002; 40: 446452.
26.Morrison, HG, et al. Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. Science 2007; 317: 19211926.
27.Lalle, M, et al. Genetic heterogeneity at the beta-giardin locus among human and animal isolates of Giardia duodenalis and identification of potentially zoonotic subgenotypes. International Journal for Parasitology 2005; 35: 207213.
28.Sulaiman, IM, et al. Triosephosphate isomerase gene characterization and potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 14441452.
29.Eligio-Garcia, L, Cortes-Campos, A, Jimenez-Cardoso, E. Genotype of Giardia intestinalis isolates from children and dogs and its relationship to host origin. Parasitology Research 2005; 97: 16.
30.Sousa, MC, et al. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia human isolates from Portugal by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2006; 53 (Suppl. 1): S174S176.
31.Robertson, LJ, et al. Application of genotyping during an extensive outbreak of waterborne giardiasis in Bergen, Norway, during autumn and winter 2004. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2006; 72: 22122217.
32.Haque, R, et al. Giardia assemblage A infection and diarrhea in Bangladesh. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 192: 21712173.
33.Lu, S, et al. The intraspecific difference of the triose phosphate isomerase (tim) gene from Giardia lamblia. Chinese Medical Journal 2002; 115: 763766.
34.Aydin, AF, et al. Classification of Giardia duodenalis parasites in Turkey into groups A and B using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2004; 50: 147151.
35.Paintlia, AS et al. Giardia lamblia groups A and B among young adults in India. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998; 26: 190191.
36.Read, C, et al. Correlation between genotype of Giardia duodenalis and diarrhoea. International Journal for Parasitology 2002; 32: 229231.
37.Sahagun, J, et al. Correlation between the presence of symptoms and the Giardia duodenalis genotype. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2008; 27: 8183.
38.Gelanew, T, et al. Molecular characterization of human isolates of Giardia duodenalis from Ethiopia. Acta Tropica 2007; 102: 9299.
39.Homan, WL, Mank, TG. Human giardiasis: genotype linked differences in clinical symptomatology. International Journal for Parasitology 2001; 31: 822826.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed