Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Rotavirus genotypes in children in the Basque Country (North of Spain): rapid and intense emergence of the G12[P8] genotype

  • G. CILLA (a1), M. MONTES (a1), M. GOMARIZ (a1), M. ALKORTA (a2), A. ITURZAETA (a2), E. G. PEREZ-YARZA (a3) (a4) and E. PEREZ-TRALLERO (a1) (a4)...

Between July 2009 and June 2011, rotavirus was detected in 507 of 4597 episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children aged <3 years in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), of which the G-type was determined in 458 (90·3%). During the annual seasonal epidemic of 2010–2011, the unusual G-type 12 was predominant, causing 65% (145/223) of cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis. All the G12 strains were clustered in lineage III and were preferentially associated with P-type 8. This epidemic was characterized by broad geographical distribution (rural and urban) and, over 7 months, affected both infants and children, the most frequently affected being children between 4 and 24 months. Of children with rotavirus G12, 16% required hospital admission, the admission rate in children aged <2 years being 20·7 cases/10 000 children. The sudden emergence and predominance of G12 rotaviruses documented in this winter outbreak suggest that they may soon become a major human rotavirus genotype.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr G. Cilla, Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Donostia, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain s/n, 20014 San Sebastián, Spain. (Email:
Hide All
1.Tate JE, et al. ; the WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network. 2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011; 12: 136141.
2.World Health Organisation.Rotavirus vaccines: an update. Weekly Epidemiological Record 2009; 84: 533537.
3.Patel MM, et al. Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2011; 30 (Suppl. 1): S15.
4.Santos N, Hoshino Y. Global distribution of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes and its implication for the development and implementation of an effective rotavirus vaccine. Reviews in Medical Virology 2005; 15: 2956.
5.Matthijnssens J, et al. Uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Archives of Virology 2011; 156: 13971413.
6.Iturriza-Gómara M, Isherwood B, Desselberger U, Gray J. Reassortment in vivo: driving force for diversity of human rotavirus strains isolated in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1999. Journal of Virology 2001; 75: 36963705.
7.Maunula L, Von Bonsdorff CH. Frequent reassortments may explain the genetic heterogeneity of rotaviruses: analysis of Finnish rotavirus strains. Journal of Virology 2002; 76: 1179311800.
8.Iturriza-Gómara M, et al. Rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in Europe between 2006 and 2009 as determined by EuroRotaNet, a pan-European collaborative strain surveillance network. Epidemiology and Infection 2011; 139: 895909.
9.Linhares AC, et al. Burden and typing of rotavirus group A in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Medical Virology. Published online: 7 March 2011. doi:10.1002/rmv.682.
10.Rahman M, et al. Evolutionary history and global spread of the emerging G12 human rotaviruses. Journal of Virology 2007; 81: 23822390.
11.Freeman MM, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of novel G12 rotaviruses in the United States: A molecular search for the origin of a new strain. Journal of Medical Virology 2009; 81: 736746.
12.Matthijnssens J, et al. Phylodynamic analyses of rotavirus genotypes G9 and G12 underscore their potential for swift global spread. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2010; 27: 24312436.
13.Iturriza Gómara M, et al. Molecular characterization of VP6 genes of human rotavirus isolates: correlation of genogroups with subgroups and evidence of independent segregation. Journal of Virology 2002; 76: 65966601.
14.Cilla G, et al. Incidence of hospitalization due to community-acquired rotavirus infection: a 12-year study (1996–2008). Epidemiology and Infection 2010; 138: 12351241.
15.Cilla G, et al. Rotavirus genotypes in children in the Basque Country (northern Spain) over a 13-year period (July 1996-June 2009). European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2010; 29: 955960.
16.Taniguchi K, et al. Nucleotide sequence of VP4 and VP7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup I specificity and long RNA pattern: implication for new G serotype specificity. Journal of Virology 1990; 64: 56405644.
17.Pongsuwanna Y, et al. Detection of a human rotavirus with G12 and P[9] specificity in Thailand. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2002; 40: 13901394.
18.Griffin DD, et al. Characterization of nontypeable rotavirus strains from the United States: identification of a new rotavirus reassortant (P2A[6],G12) and rare P3[9] strains related to bovine rotaviruses. Virology 2002; 294: 256269.
19.Castello AA, et al. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus diarrhea among children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 1999 to 2003 and emergence of the infrequent genotype G12. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006; 44: 20462050.
20.Sherchand JB, et al. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea among children aged <5 years in Nepal: predominance of emergent G12 strains during 2 years. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009; 200 (Suppl. 1): S182–7.
21.Sharma S, et al. Emergence of G12 rotavirus strains in Delhi, India, in 2000 to 2007. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008; 46: 13431348.
22.Ahmed K, et al. Molecular characterization of VP7 gene of human rotaviruses from Bangladesh. Virus Genes 2010; 40: 347356. Rougemont A, et al. Molecular and clinical characterization of rotavirus from diarrheal infants admitted to pediatric emergency units in France. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2011; 30: 118124.
24.Steyer A, et al. Rotavirus genotypes in Slovenia: unexpected detection of G8P[8] and G12P[8] genotypes. Journal of Medical Virology 2007; 79: 626632.
25.Bányai K, et al. Emergence of serotype G12 rotaviruses, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 916919.
26.Sánchez-Fauquier A, et al. Global study of viral diarrhea in hospitalized children in Spain: results of structural surveillance of viral gastroenteritis net work (VIGESS-net) 2006–2008. Journal of Clinical Virology 2011; 52: 353358.
27.Van Damme P, et al. Multicenter prospective study of the burden of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004–2005: the REVEAL study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007; 195 (Suppl. 1): S416.
28.Payne DC, et al. Secular variation in United States rotavirus disease rates and serotypes: implications for assessing the rotavirus vaccination program. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2009; 28: 948953.
29.Stupka JA, et al. Increased frequency of rotavirus G3P[8] and G12P[8] in Argentina during 2008–2009: Whole-genome characterization of emerging G12P[8] strains. Journal of Clinical Virology. Published online: 14 March 2012; doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2012.02.011.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 21 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 179 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.