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The Shigella human challenge model

  • C. K. PORTER (a1), N. THURA (a1), R. T. RANALLO (a2) and M. S. RIDDLE (a1)


Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75–80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

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Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr C. K. Porter, Enteric Diseases Department, Infectious Disease Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500, USA. (Email:


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