Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, 1997–2005

  • E. RIND (a1) (a2) and J. PEARCE (a1) (a3)
Summary

In New Zealand Campylobacter infection rates have increased steadily since 1980, reaching a peak in 2003 (396/100 000 population). Compared to other nations, disease rates are unfavourably high (e.g. Australia 117/100 000 population, UK 85/100 000 population, USA 13/100 000 population). This ecological study investigated spatial variations in Campylobacter infection rates across New Zealand's Territorial Local Authorities (TLAs, n=73) for the period 1997–2005. Applying multiple linear regression, we examined whether geographical factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, climate, land use, water and the food environment were associated with local differences in the occurrence of Campylobacter infection rates. The results suggested significant variations in campylobacteriosis across TLAs (average annual rates ranging from 97 to 526/100 000 population), with higher rates in the South Island. Disease rates were associated with lower socio-economic deprivation (P<0·01), the proportion of the population aged 25–44 years (P<0·01) and fresh food outlet density (P<0·76). The results underline the role of area-level characteristics in explaining the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. In particular, the findings draw attention to the relatively unexplored role of fresh food outlets as a potential risk factor for increased Campylobacter notifications.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, 1997–2005
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, 1997–2005
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand, 1997–2005
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: E. Rind, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. (Email: E.Rind@uea.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
1.Baker, M, Sneyd, E, Wilson, NA. Is the major increase in notified campylobacteriosis in New Zealand real? Epidemiology and Infection 2006; 135: 163170.
2.Environmental Science and Research. Campylobacter (http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/science/data-sheets/campylobacter.pdf). Accessed 2 August 2006.
3.WHO. Campylobacter (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs255/en/). Accessed 8 August 2006.
4.Scott, WG, et al. Economic cost to New Zealand of foodborne infectious disease. New Zealand Medical Journal 2000; 113: 281284.
5.Environmental Science and Research. Notifiable and other diseases in New Zealand. Annual Report 2005. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2006. Client Report FW 0621.
6.Ministry of Health. Direct Laboratory Notification of Communicable Diseases. National Guidelines (http://www.surv.esr.cri.nz/LabSurv/Documents/dln-national-guidelines-dec07.pdf). Accessed 3 August 2009.
7.Hearnden, M, et al. The regionality of campylobacteriosis seasonality in New Zealand. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2003; 13: 337348.
8.Kovats, RS, et al. Climate variability and Campylobacter infection: an international study. International Journal of Biometeorology 2005; 49: 207214.
9.Louis, VR, et al. Temperature-driven Campylobacter seasonality in England and Wales. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71: 8592.
10.Nylen, G, et al. The seasonal distribution of Campylobacter infection in nine European countries and New Zealand. Epidemiology and Infection 2002; 128: 383390.
11.Nygård, K, et al. Association between environmental risk factors and Campylobacter infections in Sweden. Epidemiology and Infection 2004; 132: 317325.
12.Sandberg, MM, et al. Incidence trend and risk factors for Campylobacter infections in humans in Norway. BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 179205.
13.Curriero, FC, et al. The association between extreme precipitation and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1948–1994. American Journal of Public Health 2001; 91: 11941199.
14.Hänninen, ML, et al. Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003; 69: 13911396.
15.Altekruse, SF, et al. Campylobacter jejuni – an emerging foodborne pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 2835.
16.Newell, DG, et al. The ecology of Campylobacter jejuni in avian and human hosts and in the environment. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2002; 6: 3S163S21.
17.Khan, R, Voice, T, Phillips, D. Developing National Environmental Health Indicators for New Zealand. Christchurch, Wellington: Environmental Science and Research, Ministry of Health, 2005. Client Report FW 0570.
18.Savill, MG, et al. Enumeration of Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2001; 91: 3846.
19.Gallay, A, et al. A large multi-pathogen waterborne community outbreak linked to faecal contamination of a groundwater system, France, 2000. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2006; 12: 561570.
20.National Health Committee. The Health of People and Communities. The effect of environmental factors on the health of New Zealanders. Report to the Minister of Health from the Public Health Advisory Committee. Wellington: Public Health Advisory Committee, 2002. HP: 3574.
21.Abbott, SE, Douwes, J, Caughley, BP.A survey of the microbiological quality of roof-collected rainwater of private dwellings in New Zealand (http://www.water2006.com/manuscripts_06/index.htm). Accessed 28 April 2007.
22.Ministry for the Environment. The New Zealand land cover database (http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/land/land-cover-dbase/). Accessed 21 January 2007.
23.Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Livestock by Territorial Authority (http://www.maf.govt.nz/statistics/pastoral/). Accessed 5 August 2006.
24.Devane, ML, et al. The occurrence of Campylobacter subtypes in environmental reservoirs and potential transmission routes. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2005; 98: 980990.
25.Savill, M, et al. Elucidation of potential transmission routes of Campylobacter in New Zealand. Water Science and Technology 2003; 47: 3338.
26.Kapperud, G, et al. Factors associated with increased and decreased risk of Campylobacter infection: a prospective case-control study in Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158: 234242.
27.TeckLok, W, On, SLW, Michie, H. Campylobacter in New Zealand: reservoirs, sources and the labyrinth of transmission routes. New Zealand Journal of Environmental Health 2006; 29: 16.
28.Baker, M, et al. Potential transmission routes of Campylobacter from environment to humans. Christchurch, Wellington: Environmental Science and Research, Ministry of Health, 2002. Client Report FW0246.
29.Hales, S, et al. Social deprivation and the public health risks of community drinking water supplies in New Zealand. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003; 57: 581583.
30.Scott, KM, Marwick, JC, Crampton, PR. Utilization of general practitioner services in New Zealand and its relationship with income, ethnicity and government subsidy. Health Services Management Research 2003; 16: 4555.
31.Hoque, ME, et al. Under-notification of giardiasis in Auckland, New Zealand: a capture-recapture estimation. Epidemiology and Infection 2005; 133: 7179.
32.New Zealand Public Health Observatory. Notifiable disease and environmental health indicator dataset (http://www.nzpho.org.nz/data_available.asp). Accessed 7 July 2006.
33.Leathwick, JR, Wilson, G, Stephens, RTT.Climate surfaces for New Zealand. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC9798/126 (http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/databases/lenz/downloads/Climate_Surfaces_for_New_Zealand_revised.pdf). Accessed 19 February 2007.
34.Statistics New Zealand. Census of Population and Dwellings 2001 (http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/default.htm#2001Census). Accessed 12 January 2007.
35.Pearce, J, Witten, K, Bartie, P. Neighbourhoods and health: a GIS approach to measuring community resource accessibility. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006; 60: 389395.
36.Salmond, C, Crampton, P.NZDep2001 Index of Deprivation. User's Manual (http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/Files/phi-users-manual/$file/phi-users-manual.pdf). Accessed 14 July 2006.
37.Blakely, T, et al. No association of neighbourhood volunteerism with mortality in New Zealand: a national multilevel cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 35: 981989.
38.Duncan, C, Jones, K, Moon, G. Context, composition and heterogeneity: using multilevel models in health research. Social Science and Medicine 1998; 46: 97–117.
39.Tabachnik, BG, Fidell, LS. Using Multivariate Statistics, 4th edn. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2001.
40.Eberhart-Phillips, J, et al. Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: results of a case-control study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1997; 51: 686691.
41.Eyles, R, et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of Campylobacter contamination underlying public health risk in the Taieri River, New Zealand. Journal of Environmental Quality 2003; 32: 18201828.
42.Pearce, J, Dorling, D. Increasing geographical inequalities in health in New Zealand, 1980–2001. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 35: 597603.
43.Evans, MR, Ribeiro, CD, Salmon, RL. Hazards of healthy living: bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 12191225.
44.Giskes, K, et al. Socio-economic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among Australian adolescents and adults. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 663669.
45.Lindstrom, M, et al. Socioeconomic differences in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and fruit juices. The influence of psychosocial factors. European Journal of Public Health 2001; 11: 5159.
46.Shohaimi, S, et al. Residential area deprivation predicts fruit and vegetable consumption independently of individual educational level and occupational social class: a cross sectional population study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2004; 58: 686691.
47.Wilson, N.A systematic review of the aetiology of human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand (http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/science/research-projects/campy-aetiol/campy-aetiol.pdf). Accessed 8 August 2006.
48.Baker, MG, et al. Regulation of chicken contamination urgently needed to control New Zealand's serious campylobacteriosis epidemic. New Zealand Medical Journal 2006; 119: 18.
49.Environmental Science and Research, Ministry of Health. Drinking water for New Zealand. Water information New Zealand (WINZ). (http://www.drinkingwater.co.nz/default.asp). Accessed 17 October 2006.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed