Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Spread of West Nile virus in Iran: a cross-sectional serosurvey in equines, 2008–2009

  • F. AHMADNEJAD (a1) (a2), V. OTAROD (a3), M. H. FALLAH (a4), S. LOWENSKI (a5), R. SEDIGHI-MOGHADDAM (a6), A. ZAVAREH (a1), B. DURAND (a5), S. LECOLLINET (a5) and P. SABATIER (a2)...
Abstract
SUMMARY

We report the first large-scale serosurvey for West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Iran. Blood samples were obtained in 2008–2009 from 1054 equines collected from 260 districts located in 27 provinces. The overall seroprevalence rate for WNV neutralizing antibodies was 23·7%. Marked geographical variations were observed as province-specific seroprevalence rates ranged from 1% to 88%, the highest values being observed in the southern and western parts of the country. The presence of IgM-positive animals (n=9) indicated a recent circulation of WNV in several provinces. Logistic modelling confirmed this result with a significant effect of age on seropositivity. This study revealed extensive circulation of WNV in Iran particularly in southwestern provinces where the virus probably circulates every year.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Miss F. Ahmadnejad, TIMC-IMAG Vet Agro Sup, 1 avenue Bourgelat, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, Lyon, France. (Email: f_ahmadnejad@yahoo.com)
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.DJ Gubler , G Kuno , L Markoff . Flaviviruses. In: DM Knipe , , eds. Fields Virology. Philidelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, pp. 11541252.

2.B Murgue , West Nile in the Mediterranean basin: 1950–2000. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2001; 951: 117126.

3.SC Trock , West Nile virus outbreak among horses in New York State, 1999 and 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 745747.

4.RS Lanciotti , Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology 2002; 298: 96–105.

5.VP Bondre , West Nile virus isolates from India: evidence for a distinct genetic lineage. Journal of General Virology 2007; 88: 875884.

6.H Bernkopf , S Levine , R Nerson . Isolation of West Nile virus in Israel. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1953; 93: 207218.

7.JL Melnick , Isolation from human sera in Egypt of a virus apparently identical to West Nile virus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1951; 77: 661665.

9.G Dauphin , West Nile: worldwide current situation in animals and humans. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2004; 27: 343355.

10.HG Zeller , I Schuffenecker . West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2004; 23: 147156.

11.CG Pollock . West Nile virus in the Americas. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 2008; 22: 151157.

12.RN Charrel , Evolutionary relationship between Old World West Nile virus strains. Evidence for viral gene flow between Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Virology 2003; 315: 381388.

14.Z Sharifi , M Mahmoodian Shooshtari , A Talebian . A study of West Nile virus infection in Iranian blood donors. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2010; 13: 14.

16.B Murgue , West Nile outbreak in horses in southern France, 2000: the return after 35 years. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 692696.

17.M Lucas , The Israeli strain IS-98-ST1 of West Nile virus as viral model for West Nile encephalitis in the Old World. Virology Journal 2004; 1: 9.

19.DB Rubin . Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1987.

20.NJ Horton , KP Kleinman . Much ado about nothing: a comparison of missing data methods and software to fit incomplete data regression models. American Statistician 2007; 61: 7990.

22.V Chevalier , Serological assessment of West Nile fever virus activity in the pastoral system of Ferlo, Senegal. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2006; 1081: 216225.

23.D Cohen , Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and sandfly fever Naples viruses in healthy adults in Israel. Public Health Reviews 1999; 27: 217230.

24.J Castillo-Olivares , J Wood . West Nile virus infection of horses. Veterinary Research 2004; 35: 467483.

25.ML Bunning , Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 380386.

26.TF Tsai , West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet 1998; 352: 767771.

27.N Komar . West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Advances in Virus Research 2005; 61: 185234.

28.T Balenghien , Horse-, bird-, and human-seeking behavior and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in a West Nile virus focus of southern France. Journal of Medical Entomology 2006; 43: 936946.

29.E Jourdain , Bird migration routes and risk for pathogen dispersion into western Mediterranean wetlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 365372.

30.Z Hubalek . An annotated checklist of pathogenic microorganisms associated with migratory birds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 2004; 40: 639659.

31.KD Reed , Birds, migration and emerging zoonoses: West Nile virus, Lyme disease, influenza A and enteropathogens. Clinical Medicine & Research 2003; 1: 5–12.

32.T Briese , Phylogenetic analysis of a human isolate from the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epidemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 528531.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: