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    Afset, J Larssen, K Bergh, K Lärkeryd, A Sjödin, A Johansson, A and Forsman, M 2015. Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 2011. Eurosurveillance, Vol. 20, Issue. 19, p. 21125.

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    Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel Zé-Zé, Líbia Alves, Ana Sofia Pardal, Sara Lopes, Ricardo Jorge Mendes, Luísa and Núncio, Maria Sofia 2012. Borrelia garinii and Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica detected in migratory shorebirds in Portugal. European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 58, Issue. 5, p. 857.


The role of birds in dissemination of Francisella tularensis: first direct molecular evidence for bird-to-human transmission

  • P. I. PADESHKI (a1), I. N. IVANOV (a1), B. POPOV and T. V. KANTARDJIEV (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 August 2009

During a recent large tularemia outbreak in Bulgaria we found several cases that were remote from the main focus. One case had an unusual mode of transmission. A hunter acquired tularemia through a nail scratch from a buzzard (Buteo buteo) and consequently developed a typical ulceroglandular form of the disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods and successful cultivation. Comparative strain typing was performed by high-resolution multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The isolated strain was identical to one of the outbreak genotypes. We consider that this case represents a bird-to-human transmission of F. tularensis.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr P. I. Padeshki, National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Microbiology Department, 26 Yanko Sakazov, 1504Sofia, Bulgaria. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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