Marc Goodman, Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable, and What We Can Do About It, ebook (New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2015), ch. 6.
Dunlap, Charles J. Jr., “The Hyper-Personalization of War: Cyber, Big Data, and the Changing Face of Conflict,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs
15, International Engagement on Cyber IV (2014), pp. 108–118
Rick Smolan and Jennifer Erwitt, The Human Face of Big Data (Sausalito, Calif.: Against All Odds Productions, 2012);
Kitchin, Rob, “Big Data and Human Geography: Opportunities, Challenges and Risks,” Dialogues in Human Geography
3, no. 3 (2013), pp. 262–67; Doug Laney, “3D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity, and Variety” (Meta Group, February 6, 2001), blogs.gartner.com/doug-laney/files/2012/01/ad949-3D-Data-Management-Controlling-Data-Volume-Velocity-and-Variety.pdf; and Bill Vorhies, “How Many ‘V's in Big Data—The Characteristics That Define Big Data,” Business Foundation Series #2, October 31, 2013, data-magnum.com/how-many-vs-in-big-data-the-characteristics-that-define-big-data/.
Small chips attached to objects that contain electronically stored and wirelessly transferred information, e.g., for tracking and identifying parcels (functionally similar to QR codes).
Zwitter, Andrej, “Big Data Ethics,” Big Data & Society
1, no. 2 (2014), p. 2; Viktor Mayer-Schönberger and Kenneth Cukier, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013), p. 52ff.
Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier, Big Data, pp. 26–31.
Zwitter, “Big Data Ethics,” p. 2.
Kitchin, Rob, “Big Data, New Epistemologies and Paradigm Shifts,” Big Data & Society
1, no. 1 (2014), p. 2.
Ray Wang, “Monday's Musings: Beyond The Three V's of Big Data—Viscosity and Virality,” Forbes, February 27, 2012.
Weng, Lilian, Menczer, Filippo, and Ahn, Yong-Yeol, “Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks,” Scientific Reports
3, Article number: 2522 (published online August 28, 2013).
Goodman, Future Crimes, ch. 4.
Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999).
F. Johansson et al., “Detecting Emergent Conflicts through Web Mining and Visualization,” Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC), 2011 European, pp. 346–53.
et al. , “The Parable of Google Flu: Traps in Big Data Analysis,” Science
343, no. 6176 (2014), pp. 1203–205.
UN Secretary-General, “Information and Communications Technology in the United Nations,” Report of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly, October 10, 2014, UN document A/69/517, para. 40.
John Karlsrud, “Peacekeeping 4.0: Harnessing the Potential of Big Data, Social Media, and Cyber Technologies,” in Jan-Frederik Kremer and Benedikt Müller, eds., Cyberspace and International Relations: Theory, Prospects and Challenges, 2014 edition (Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer, 2013), pp. 141–60.
Mireille Hildebrandt, Smart Technologies and the End(s) of Law: Novel Entanglements of Law and Technology (Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Pub, 2015), p. 90.
I.e., a website that cannot be indexed by search engines and to which one only has access through identity-cloaking protocols such as Tor.
Jan-Frederik Kremer and Benedikt Müller, eds., Cyberspace and International Relations: Theory, Prospects and Challenges, 2014 edition (Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer, 2013), p. vii.