“The Tribunal irreversibly changed the landscape of international humanitarian law.” From the website of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), “About the ICTY,” www.icty.org/sections/AbouttheICTY.
International Bar Association (IBA), Minimum Standards of Judicial Independence (adopted 1982).
Ibid., Sec. F, “Standards of Conduct.”
Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary (Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, endorsed by General Assembly resolution 40/32 of November 29, 1985 and welcomed by General Assembly resolution 40/146 of December 13, 1985), www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/IndependenceJudiciary.aspx.
Ibid., Value 2, “Impartiality.”
Geoffrey Robertson, Crimes against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice, 3rd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007).
Prosecutor v. Šešelj, “Decision on Motion for Disqualification,” IT-03-67-PT, June 10, 2003: Judge Agius voluntarily self-recused, though he saw no merit to the motion for his disqualification.
Mackenzie, Ruth and Sands, Philippe, “International Courts and Tribunals and the Independence of the International Judge,” Harvard International Law Journal
44, no. 1 (2003), pp. 271–86, http://www.pict-pcti.org/publications/PICT_articles/mackenzie2.pdf: “ICJ judges are full-time, but the ICJ has taken a flexible attitude with regard to certain outside activities. For example, some of the judges have accepted appointments to act as arbitrators. The practice may still not raise concerns where the arbitral dispute is between two states that are not involved in proceedings before the ICJ.”
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 36(3)(a), UN document A/CONF. 183/9, 37 ILM 1002 (1998)/2187 UNTS 90.