Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Massive Migrations? The Impact of Recent aDNA Studies on our View of Third Millennium Europe

  • Martin Furholt (a1)
Abstract

New human aDNA studies have once again brought to the forefront the role of mobility and migration in shaping social phenomena in European prehistory, processes that recent theoretical frameworks in archaeology have downplayed as an outdated explanatory notion linked to traditional culture history. While these new genetic data have provided new insights into the population history of prehistoric Europe, they are frequently interpreted and presented in a manner that recalls aspects of traditional culture-historical archaeology that were rightly criticized through the 1970s to the 1990s. They include the idea that shared material culture indicates shared participation in the same social group, or culture, and that these cultures constitute one-dimensional, homogeneous, and clearly bounded social entities. Since the new aDNA data are used to create vivid narratives describing ‘massive migrations’, the so-called cultural groups are once again likened to human populations and in turn revitalized as external drivers for socio-cultural change. Here, I argue for a more nuanced consideration of molecular data that more explicitly incorporates anthropologically informed mobility and migration models.

Les nouvelles études d'ADN ancien (ADNa) ont renouvelé les questions portant sur le rôle que les mouvements de population et les migrations ont joué dans les phénomènes sociaux en Europe au cours de la préhistoire. L'importance de ces processus a été minimisée dans le cadre des théories archéologiques de ces dernières années qui les a reléguées au niveau d'interprétations surannées liées à l'histoire culturelle traditionnelle. Les nouvelles données génétiques ont bien sûr apporté des perspectives nouvelles sur l'histoire des populations préhistoriques de l'Europe mais elles ont souvent été présentées et interprétées de façon qui rappelle certains aspects de l'histoire culturelle traditionnelle critiqués à juste titre pendant les années 1970 à 1990 : entre autres l'idée qu'une culture matérielle partagée représentait un même groupe social ou culture, et que ces cultures constituaient des ensembles unidimensionnels, homogènes et bien définis. Etant donné que les nouvelles données ADNa sont à l'origine de reconstitutions colorées de « migrations en masse », ces groupes culturels sont à nouveau évoqués comme caractérisant des populations humaines et revitalisés comme moteurs externes de transformations socio-culturelles. Ici nous plaidons en faveur d'une prise en considération plus nuancée des données moléculaires qui intègrerait plus explicitement les modèles de migration et de mobilité que les études d'anthropologie sociale et culturelle nous livrent. Translation by Madeleine Hummler.

Zusammenfassung

Neue Studien alter DNA haben die Rolle von Mobilität und Migration in der sozialhistorischen Entwicklung der Europäischen Vorgeschichte wieder auf die Tagesordnung gebracht, nachdem diese Konzepte lange Zeit als rückständige und überholte Reliquien einer traditionellen kulturhistorischen Archäologie abgelehnt worden waren. Während die neuen molekularbiologischen Daten neue Erkenntnisse über die Populationsgeschichte des prähistorischen Europa geliefert haben, werden sie häufig in einer Weise interpretiert und präsentiert, die an solche Elemente der traditionellen kulturhistorischen Archäologie erinnert, die in den 1970er bis 1990er Jahren zu Recht kritisiert wurden. Dies betrifft die Vorstellung dass eine gleichartige materielle Kultur die Zugehörigkeit zu einer gemeinsamen sozialen Gruppe, oder Kultur, anzeige, und dass diese Kulturen eindimensionale, homogene, klar abgegrenzte soziale Einheiten darstellen würden. Während die neuen aDNA-Daten benutzt werden, um anschauliche Narrative über ‘massive Völkerwanderungen’ zu erzeugen, werden wieder archäologische Kulturen mit menschlichen Populationen gleichgesetzt, und deren vermeintlich kollektive Migrationen als externe Faktoren für soziokulturellen Wandel interpretiert. Dieser Artikel argumenitert für eine differenziertere Auseinandersetzung mit den molekularbiologischen Daten, die das weite Feld kulturanthropologischer Forschung zum Thema Migration für die Diskussion expliziter Mobilitäts- und Migrationsmodelle in der Vorgeschichte nutzbar macht. Translation by Martin Furholt.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Allentoft, M.E. Sikora, M, Sjögren, K.-G., Rasmussen, S., Rasmussen, M., Stenderup, J., et al. 2015. Population Genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature, 522(7555): 167–72. doi:10.1038/nature14507
Ammerman, A.J. & Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. 1984. The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
Antanaitis-Jacobs, I., Daugnora, L. & Richards, M. 2009. Diet in Early Lithuanian Prehistory and the New Stable Isotope Evidence. Archaeologia Baltica, 12: 1230.
Anthony, D.W. 1990. Migration in Archaeology: The Baby and the Bathwater. American Anthropologist, 92: 895914.
Anthony, D.W. 1992. The Bath Refilled: Migration in Archaeology Again. American Anthropologist, 94: 174–76.
Anthony, D.W. 1997. Prehistoric Migration as Social Process. In: Chapman, J. & Hamerow, H., eds. Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Explanation (British Archaeological Reports International Series 664). Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 2132.
Anthony, D.W. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
Bandelt, H.J., Macaulay, V. & Richards, M. 2003. What Molecules Can't Tell Us about the Spread of Languages and the Neolithic. In: Bellwood, P.S. & Renfrew, C., eds. Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, pp. 99107. Available at: <http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/33525/> [accessed 18 September 2016].
Bánffy, E., Brandt, G. & Alt, K.W. 2012. ‘Early Neolithic’ Graves of the Carpathian Basin Are in fact 6000 Years Younger. Appeal for Real Interdisciplinarity between Archaeology and Ancient DNA Research. Journal of Human Genetics, 57: 467–69.
Barras, C. 2015. Dawn of a Continent. New Scientist, Issue 3028: 28–33.
Barth, F. ed. 1982. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference (reprint). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Beckerman, S.M. 2015. Corded Ware Coastal Communities: Using Ceramic Analysis to Reconstruct Third Millennium bc Societies in the Netherlands. Leiden: Sidestone Press.
Beran, J. 1992. A-Horizont und Kugelamphorenkultur. In: Buchvaldek, M. & Strahm, C., eds. Die kontinentaleuropäischen Gruppen der Kultur mit Schnurkeramik. Schnurkeramik-Symposium 1990 (Praehistorica 19). Prague: Charles University, pp. 3541.
Bernbeck, R. 2008. An Archaeology of Multi-Sited Communities. In: Wendrich, W. & Barnard, H., eds. The Archaeology of Mobility. Old World and New World Nomadism. Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 4377. Available at: <https://www.topoi.org/publication/18557/> [Accessed 13 February 2016].
Bertemes, F. & Heyd, V. 2002. Der Übergang Kupferzeit/Frühbronzezeit am Nordwestrand des Karpatenbeckens: kulturgeschichtliche und paläometallurgische Betrachtungen. In: Bartelheim, M., Krause, R. & Pernicka, E., eds. Die Anfänge der Metallurgie in der Alten Welt, Euroseminar Freiberg/Sachsen, 18.–20. November 1999. Forschungen zur Archäometrie und Altertumswissenschaft. Rahden/Westfalen: Marie Leidorf, pp. 185229.
Bickle, P. & Whittle, A. eds. 2013. The First Farmers of Central Europe: Diversity in LBK Lifeways. Oxford & Oakville (CT): Oxbow Books.
Bramanti, B., Thomas, M.G., Haak, W., Unterlaender, M., Jores, P., Tambets, K., et al. 2009. Genetic Discontinuity between Local Hunter-Gatherers and Central Europe's First Farmers. Science, 326(5949): 137–40. doi: 10.1126/science.1176869
Brandt, G., Haak, W., Adler, C.J., Roth, C., Szécsényi-Nagy, A., Karimnia, S., et al. 2013. Ancient DNA Reveals Key Stages in the Formation of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity. Science, 342(6155): 257–61. doi: 10.1126/science.1241844
Brather, S. 2004. Ethnische Interpretationen in der frühgeschichtlichen Archäologie. Geschichte, Grundlagen und Alternativen. Berlin & New York: W. de Gruyter.
Brather, S. & Wotzka, H.-P. 2006. Alemannen und Franken? Bestattungsmodi, ethnische Identitäten und wirtschaftliche Verhältnisse in der Merowingerzeit. In: Burmeister, S. & Müller-Scheeßel, N., eds. Soziale Gruppen – kulturelle Grenzen. Die Interpretation sozialer Identitäten in der Prähistorischen Archäologie. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 139224.
Brettell, C.B. 2014. Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines (third edition). Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Burmeister, S. 2000. Archaeology and Migration. Approaches to an Archaeological Proof of Migration. Current Anthropology, 41: 539–67.
Cabana, G.S. & Clark, J.J. eds. 2011. Rethinking Anthropological Perspectives on Migration. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Cameron, C.M. 2013. How People Moved among Ancient Societies: Broadening the View. American Anthropologist, 115(2): p. 218–31.
Chapman, J. & Dolukhanov, P.M. 1992. The Baby and the Bathwater: Pulling the Plug on Migrations. American Anthropologist, 94: 169–74.
Chapman, J. & Hamerow, H. eds. 1997. Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Explanation (British Archaeological Reports International Series 664). Oxford: Archaeopress.
Childe, V.G. 1925. The Dawn of European Civilisation. London & New York: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
Childe, V.G. 1929. The Danube in Prehistory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Clarke, D.L. 1968. Analytical Archaeology. London: Methuen.
Cohen, J.H. & Sirkeci, I. 2011. Cultures of Migration: The Global Nature of Contemporary Mobility. Austin (TX): University of Texas Press.
Czebreszuk, J. 2002. From Typochronology to Calendar. A Case Study: Society between Jutland and Kujawy in the 3rd Millennium bc. In: Müller, J., ed. Vom Endneolithikum zur Frühbronzezeit: Muster sozialen Wandels? (Tagung Bamberg 14.–16. Juni 2001). Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie. Bonn: Habelt, pp. 235–44.
Czebreszuk, J. & Szmyt, M. 1998. Der Epochenumbruch vom Neolithikum zur Bronzezeit im Polnischen Tiefland am Beispiel Kujawiens. Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 73: 167232.
Damm, C. 1991. The Danish Single Grave Culture: Ethnic Migration or Social Construction? Journal of Danish Archaeology, 10: 199204.
Dörfler, W. & Müller, J. 2008. Umwelt – Wirtschaft – Siedlungen im dritten vorchristlichen Jahrtausend Mitteleuropas und Südskandinaviens (Tagung Kiel 2005). Neumünster: Wachholtz.
Eriksson, G., Lõugas, L. & Zagorska, I. 2003. Stone Age Hunter-Fisher-Gatherers at Zvejnieki, Northern Latvia: Radiocarbon, Stable Isotope and Archaeozoology Data. Before Farming, 1: 125.
Frieman, C.J. 2012. Flint Daggers, Copper Daggers and Technological Innovation in Late Neolithic Scandinavia. European Journal of Archaeology, 15(3): 440–64.
Frînculeasa, A., Preda, B. & Heyd, V. 2015. Pit-Graves, Yamnaya and Kurgans along the Lower Danube: Disentangling IVth and IIIrd Millennium bc Burial Customs, Equipment and Chronology. Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 90: 45113.
Furholt, M. 2003. Die absolutchronologische Datierung der Schnurkeramik in Mitteleuropa und Südskandinavien. Bonn: Habelt.
Furholt, M. 2008a. Pottery, Cultures, People? The European Baden Material Re-examined. Antiquity, 82: 617–28.
Furholt, M. 2008b. The Baden Complex and the Outside World: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the EAA in Cracow, 19–24th September 2006. Bonn: Habelt.
Furholt, M. 2011. Materielle Kultur und räumliche Strukturen sozialer Identität im 4. und 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. in Mitteleuropa. In: Hansen, S. & Müller, J., eds. Sozialarchäologische Perspektiven: Gesellschaftlicher Wandel 5000–1500 v. Chr. zwischen Atlantik und Kaukasus. Internationale Tagung in Kiel 15.–18. Oktober 2007 in Kiel. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, pp. 243–67.
Furholt, M. 2014. Upending a ‘Totality’: Re-evaluating Corded Ware Variability in Late Neolithic Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 80: 6786.
Furholt, M. 2016. Corded Ware and Bell Beakers: A Practice-based Perspective on Local Communities, Transregional Interaction and Social Heterogeneity in Late Neolithic Europe. In: Furholt, M., Grossmann, R. & Szmyt, M., eds. Transitional Landscapes? The 3rd Millennium bc in Europe. Proceedings of the International Workshop ‘Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes III’ (15th–18th April 2013) in Kiel. Bonn: Habelt, pp. 117–31.
Genova, E. 2017. ‘Between a Rock and a Hard Place’: Bulgarian Highly Skilled Migrants’ Experiences of External and Internal Stereotypes in the Context of the European Crisis. National Identities, 19(1): 3351.
Glob, P.V. 1945. Studier over den Jyske Enkeltgravskulturen. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
Goldstein, P.S. 2000. Communities Without Borders: The Vertical Archipelago and Diaspora Communities in the Southern Andes. In: Canuto, M.A. & Yaeger, J., eds. The Archaeology of Communities: A New World Perspective. London: Routledge, pp. 182209.
Gómez-Sánchez, D., Olalde, I., Pierini, F., Matas-Lalueza, L., Gigli, E., Lari, M., et al. 2014. Mitochondrial DNA from El Mirador Cave (Atapuerca, Spain) Reveals the Heterogeneity of Chalcolithic Populations. PLoS ONE, 9(8): e105105. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105105. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4130614/> [accessed 2 October 2016].
Govedarica, B. 2004. Zepterträger - Herrscher der Steppen: die frühen Ockergräber des älteren Äneolithikums im karpatenbalkanischen Gebiet und im Steppenraum Südost- und Osteuropas. Mainz am Rhein: von Zabern.
Greenblatt, S. 2009. Cultural Mobility: A Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haak, W., Balanovsky, O., Sanchez, J.J., Koshel, S., Zaporozhchenko, V., Adler, C.J., et al. 2010. Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals their Near Eastern Affinities. PLOS Biology, 8(11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536
Haak, W., Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Llamas, B., et al. 2015. Massive Migration from the Steppe was a Source for Indo-European Languages in Europe. Nature, 522(7555): 207–11. doi:10.1038/nature14317
Hahn, H.P. 2005. Materielle Kultur. Eine Einführung. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Hahn, H.P. & Klute, G. 2007. Cultures of Migration: African Perspectives. Münster: LIT Verlag.
Harrison, R.J. & Heyd, V. 2007. The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium bc: The Example of ‘Le Petit Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 82: 129214.
Hassan, F.A. 1981. Demographic Archaeology. New York: Academic Press.
Heggarty, P. 2014a. Prehistory through Language and Archaeology. In: Bowern, C. & Evans, B., eds. The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics. London & New York: Routledge, pp. 598626.
Heggarty, P. 2014b. Prehistory by Bayesian Phylogenetics? The State of the Art on Indo-European Origins. Antiquity, 88: 566–77.
Hodder, I. 1982. Symbols in Action. Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hofmann, D. 2014. What Have Genetics Ever Done for Us? The Implications of aDNA Data for Interpreting Identity in Early Neolithic Central Europe. European Journal of Archaeology, 18: 454–76.
Hübner, E. 2005. Jungneolithische Gräber auf der jütischen Halbinsel. Typologische und chronologische Studien zur Einzelgrabkultur. Kopenhagen: Det kongelige oldskriftselskab.
Iversen, R. 2010. In a World of Worlds: The Pitted Ware Complex in a Large-Scale Perspective. Acta Archaeologica, 81: 543.
Kadrow, S. 2008. Settlements and Subsistence Strategies of the Corded Ware Culture at the Beginning of the Third Millenium bc in South-Eastern Poland and in Western Ukraine. In: Dörfler, W. & Müller, J., eds. Umwelt – Wirtschaft – Siedlungen im dritten Jahrtausend Mitteleuropas und Südskandinaviens. Internationale Tagung Kiel 4.-6. November 2005. Neumünster: Wachholtz, pp. 243–52.
Kaiser, E. & Schier, W. eds. 2013. Mobilität und Wissenstransfer in diachroner und interdisziplinärer Perspektive. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Kleijne, J., Brinkkemper, O., Lauwerier, R., Smit, B. & Theunissen, L. eds. 2013. A Matter of Life and Death at Mienakker (The Netherlands): Late Neolithic Behavioural Variability in a Dynamic Landscape. Amersfoort: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.
Kossinna, G. 1910. Der Ursprung der Urfinnen und Urindogermanen und ihre Ausbreitung nach Osten. Mannus, 1–2: 225–45.
Kossinna, G. 1911. Die Herkunft der Germanen. Zur Methode der Siedlungsarchäologie. Würzburg: Kabitzsch.
Kristiansen, K. 1989. Prehistoric Migrations: The Case of the Single Grave and Corded Ware Culture. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 8: 211–25.
Kristiansen, K. 2015. The Decline of the Neolithic and the Rise of Bronze Age Society. In: Fowler, C., Harding, J. & Hofmann, D., eds. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1093–117.
Kruk, J. 1973. Studia osadnicze nad neolitem wyżyn lessowych. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich.
Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Mittnik, A., Renaud, G., Mallick, S., Kirsanow, K., et al. 2014. Ancient Human Genomes Suggest Three Ancestral Populations for Present-day Europeans. Nature, 513(7518): 409–13. doi:10.1038/nature13673
Leppard, T.P. 2014. Mobility and Migration in the Early Neolithic of the Mediterranean: Questions of Motivation and Mechanism. World Archaeology, 46(4): 484501.
Mathieson, I., Lazaridis, J., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Patterson, N., Roodenberg, S., et al. 2015. Genome-wide Patterns of Selection in 230 Ancient Eurasians. Nature, 528(7583): 499503. doi:10.1038/nature16152
Müller, J. 2001. Zum Verhältnis von Schnurkeramik und jüngeren Trichterbechergruppen im Mittelelbe-Saale-Gebiet: Kontinuität oder Diskontinuität? In: Gohlisch, T.H. & Reisch, L., eds. Die Stellung der endnolithischen Chamer Kultur in ihrem räumlichen und zeitlichen Kontext. Kolloquien des Institutes für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Erlangen. Büchenbach: Dr. Faustus, pp. 120–36.
Müller, J. 2013. Kossinna, Childe and aDNA. Comments on the Construction of Identities. Current Swedish Archaeology, 21: 3537.
Müller, J. 2015. Eight Million Neolithic Europeans: Social Demography and Social Archaeology on the Scope of Change: From the Near East to Scandinavia. In: Kristiansen, K., Šmejda, L. & Turek, J., eds. Paradigm Found: Archaeological Theory Present, Past and Future: Essays in Honour of Evžen Neustupný. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 200–14.
Müller, J., Seregély, T., Becker, C., Christensen, A.M., Fuchs, M., Kroll, H., et al. 2009. A Revision of Corded Ware Settlement Pattern: New Results from the Central European Low Mountain Range. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 75: 125–42.
O'Hara, M. 2014. Austerity Bites: A Journey to the Sharp End of Cuts in the UK. Bristol: Policy Press.
Patterson, N., Moorjani, P., Luo, Y., Mallick, S., Rohland, N., Zhan, Y., et al. 2012. Ancient Admixture in Human History. Genetics, 192(3): 1065–93. doi: 10.1534/genetics.112.145037
Piezonka, H. 2015. Jäger, Fischer, Töpfer: Wildbeutergruppen mit früher Keramik in Nordosteuropa im 6. und 5. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Bonn: Habelt.
Pospieszny, Ł. 2015. Freshwater Reservoir Effect and the Radiocarbon Chronology of the Cemetery in Ząbie, Poland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 53: 264–76.
Prescott, C. 2013. Recurrent Themes: Indo-Europeans in Norwegian Archaeology. In: Bergerbrant, S. & Sabatini, S., eds. Counterpoint: Essays in Archaeology and Heritage Studies in Honour of Professor Kristian Kristiansen (BAR International Series 2508). Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 607–12.
Prescott, C. & Glørstad, H. 2015. Expanding 3rd Millennium Transformations: Norway. In: Prieto Martínez, M.P. & Salanova, L., eds. The Bell Beaker Transition in Europe: Mobility and Local Evolution during the 3rd Millennium bc. Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 7787.
Price, T.D., Knipper, C., Grupe, G., & Smrcka, Frînculeasa V. 2004. Strontium Isotopes and Prehistoric Migration: The Bell Beaker Period in Central Europe. European Journal of Archaeology, 7(1): p.940.
Prien, R. 2005. Archäologie und Migration: vergleichende Studien zur archäologischen Nachweisbarkeit von Wanderungsbewegungen. Bonn: Habelt.
Raetzel-Fabian, D. 2001. Revolution, Reformation, Epochenwechsel? Das Ende der Kollektivgrabsitte und der Übergang von der Wartberg- zur Einzelgrabkultur in Nordhessen und Westfalen. In: Czebreszuk, J. & Müller, J., eds. Die Absolute Chronologie in Mitteleuropa 3000–2000 v. Chr (Studien zur Archäologie in Ostmitteleuropa). Rahden/Westfahlen: Marie Leidorf, pp. 319–36.
Rasmussen, S., Allentoft, M.E., Nielsen, K., Orlando, L., Sikora, M., Sjögren, K.-G., et al. 2015. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia Pestis in Eurasia 5000 Years Ago. Cell, 163: 571–82. Available at < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009 > [accessed 27 January 2017].
Renfrew, C. & Boyle, K.V. eds. 2000. Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population Prehistory of Europe. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Roberts, B.W. & Vander Linden, M. eds. 2011. Investigating Archaeological Cultures. New York (NY): Springer New York.
Schade-Lindig, S. & Schade, C. 2010. Woher kommt Flomborn? Keramikimporte und Nachahmungen in der bandkeramischen Siedlung Bad Nauheim-Nieder-Mörlen ‘auf dem Hempler’. In: Gronenborn, D. & Petrasch, Jörg, eds. Die Neolithisierung Mitteleuropas. Internationale Tagung Mainz, 24.–26. Juni 2005. Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, pp. 461–74.
Schöne, T. 2013. DNA-Studie. Menschen der Himmelsscheibe hatten ähnliche Gene wie wir. Archäologie in Deutschland, 6: 56.
Shennan, S. 1989. Introduction: Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. In: Shennan, S., ed. Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 132.
Shennan, S.J. 1976. Bell Beakers and their Context in Central Europe. In: Lanting, J.N. & van der Waals, J.D., eds. Glockenbechersymposium Oberried 1974. Oberried: Fibula-Van Dishoeck, pp. 231–40.
Sherratt, A. 1981. Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution. In: Hodder, I., Isaac, G. & Hammond, N., eds. Pattern of the Past. Studies in Honour of David Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 261305.
Shishlina, N. 2008. Reconstruction of the Bronze Age of the Caspian Steppes (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1876). Oxford: Archaeopress.
Sierp, A. & Karner, C. 2017. National Stereotypes in the Context of the European Crisis. National Identities, 19 (1): 19.
Sjögren, K.-G., Price, T.D. & Kristiansen, K. 2016. Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe. PLoS ONE, 11(5): p.e0155083.
Skoglund, P., Malmström, H., Raghavan, M., Storå, J., Hall, P., Willerslev, E., et al. 2012. Origins and Genetic Legacy of Neolithic Farmers and Hunter-Gatherers in Europe. Science, 336(6080): 466–69. doi: 10.1126/science.1216304
Smit, B.I., Brinkkemper, O., Kleijne, J.P., Lauwerier, R.C.G.M. & Theunissen, E.M. eds. 2012. A Kaleidoscope of Gathering at Keinsmerbrug (The Netherlands): Late Neolithic Behavioural Variability in a Dynamic Landscape. Amersfoort: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.
Strahm, C. 2002. Tradition und Wandel der sozialen Strukturen vom 3. zum 2. vorchristlichen Jahrtausend. In: Müller, J., ed. Vom Endneolithikum zur Frühbronzezeit: Muster sozialen Wandels? (Tagung Bamberg 14.–16. Juni 2001). Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie. Bonn: Habelt, pp. 175–94.
Szmyt, M. 1999. Between West and East. People of the Globular Amphora Culture in Eastern Europe: 2950–2350 bc. Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University.
Thomas, J. 2013. The Birth of Neolithic Britain: An Interpretive Account. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vander Linden, M. 2006. Le phénomène campaniforme dans l'Europe du 3ème millénaire avant notre ère: synthèse et nouvelles perspectives (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1470). Oxford: Archaeopress.
Vander Linden, M. 2007a. What Linked the Bell Beakers in Third Millennium bc Europe? Antiquity, 81: 343–52.
Vander Linden, M. 2007b. For Equalities are Plural: Reassessing the Social in Europe during the Third Millennium. World Archaeology, 39 (2):177–93.
Vander Linden, M. 2012. The Importance of Being Insular: Britain and Ireland in their North-western European Context During the 3rd Millennium bc. In: Allen, M.J., Gardiner, J. & Sheridan, J.A., eds. Is There a British Chalcolithic: People, Place and Polity in the Later 3rd Millennium. London: Prehistoric Society Research Papers, pp. 7184.
Vander Linden, M. 2016. Population History in Third-Millennium bc Europe: Assessing the Contribution of Genetics. World Archaeology [online]. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2016.1209124> [accessed 27 January 2017].
van Dommelen, P. 2014. Moving On: Archaeological Perspectives on Mobility and Migration. World Archaeology, 46(4): 477–83.
Vertovec, S. ed. 2010. Anthropology of Migration and Multiculturalism: New Directions. London: Routledge.
Włodarczak, P. 2006. Kultura Ceramiki Sznurowej na Wyżynie Małopolskiej. Kraków: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Worth, O. 2013. Resistance in the Age of Austerity: Nationalism, the Failure of the Left and the Return of God. Halifax (NS), London & New York: Fernwood Publishing & Zed Books.
Wotzka, H.-P. 1993. Zum traditionellen Kulturbegriff in der prähistorischen Archäologie. Paideuma, 39: 2544.
Wotzka, H.-P. 1997. Maßstabsprobleme bei der ethnischen Deutung neolithischer ‘Kulturen’. Das Altertum, 43: 163–76.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Journal of Archaeology
  • ISSN: 1461-9571
  • EISSN: 1741-2722
  • URL: /core/journals/european-journal-of-archaeology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 45
Total number of PDF views: 375 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2206 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th September 2017 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.