Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-jzjqj Total loading time: 0.379 Render date: 2022-08-11T22:29:10.935Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

The lipidome in major depressive disorder: Shared genetic influence for ether-phosphatidylcholines, a plasma-based phenotype related to inflammation, and disease risk

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 March 2020

E.E.M. Knowles*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
K. Huynh
Affiliation:
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia
P.J. Meikle
Affiliation:
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia
H.H.H. Göring
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA
R.L. Olvera
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
S.R. Mathias
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
R. Duggirala
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA
L. Almasy
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA
J. Blangero
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA
J.E. Curran
Affiliation:
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA
D.C. Glahn
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Olin Neuropsychiatric Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA
*
*Corresponding author. E-mail address:emknowles@gmail.com (E.E.M. Knowles).
Get access

Abstract

Background:

The lipidome is rapidly garnering interest in the field of psychiatry. Recent studies have implicated lipidomic changes across numerous psychiatric disorders. In particular, there is growing evidence that the concentrations of several classes of lipids are altered in those diagnosed with MDD. However, for lipidomic abnormalities to be considered potential treatment targets for MDD (rather than secondary manifestations of the disease), a shared etiology between lipid concentrations and MDD should be demonstrated.

Methods:

In a sample of 567 individuals from 37 extended pedigrees (average size 13.57 people, range = 3–80), we used mass spectrometry lipidomic measures to evaluate the genetic overlap between twenty-three biologically distinct lipid classes and a dimensional scale of MDD.

Results:

We found that the lipid class with the largest endophenotype ranking value (ERV, a standardized parametric measure of pleiotropy) were ether-phosphodatidylcholines (alkylphosphatidylcholine, PC(O) and alkenylphosphatidylcholine, PC(P) subclasses). Furthermore, we examined the cluster structure of the twenty-five species within the top-ranked lipid class, and the relationship of those clusters with MDD. This analysis revealed that species containing arachidonic acid generally exhibited the greatest degree of genetic overlap with MDD.

Conclusions:

This study is the first to demonstrate a shared genetic etiology between MDD and ether-phosphatidylcholine species containing arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid that is a precursor to inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins. The study highlights the potential utility of the well-characterized linoleic/arachidonic acid inflammation pathway as a diagnostic marker and/or treatment target for MDD.

Type
Original article
Copyright
Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Sullivan, PFNeale, MCKendler, KSGenetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157(10):15521562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, RCBerglund, PDemler, OJin, RKoretz, DMerikangas, KRet al.The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). JAMA 2003;289(23):30953105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenberg, PEKessler, RCBirnbaum, HGLeong, SALowe, SWBerglund, PAet al.The economic burden of depression in the United States: how did it change between 1990 and 2000?. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64(12):14651475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wells, KBStewart, AHays, RDBurnam, MARogers, WDaniels, Met al.The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the medical outcomes study. JAMA 1989;262(7):914919.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hays, RDWells, KBSherbourne, CDRogers, WSpritzer, KFunctioning and well-being outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52(1):1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Depression fact sheet number 369 [Internet]; 2012 [Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/index.html].Google Scholar
Fenton, WSHibbeln, JKnable, MEssential fatty acids, lipid membrane abnormalities, and the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47(1):821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ming, XStein, TPBrimacombe, MJohnson, WGLambert, GHWagner, GCIncreased excretion of a lipid peroxidation biomarker in autism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;73(5):379384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiest, MMGerman, JBHarvey, DJWatkins, SMHertz-Picciotto, IPlasma fatty acid profiles in autism: a case-control study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009;80(4):221227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stoll, ALSeverus, WEFreeman, MPRueter, SZboyan, HADiamond, Eet al.Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56(5):407412.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Versace, AAndreazza, ACYoung, LTFournier, JCAlmeida, JRStiffler, RSet al.Elevated serum measures of lipid peroxidation and abnormal prefrontal white matter in euthymic bipolar adults: toward peripheral biomarkers of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2014;19(2):200208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ranjekar, PKHinge, AHegde, MVGhate, MKale, ASitasawad, Set al.Decreased antioxidant enzymes and membrane essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in schizophrenic and bipolar mood disorder patients. Psychiatry Res 2003;121(2):109122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, GGibson, NABrotchie, HHeruc, GRees, AMHadzi-Pavlovic, DOmega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(6):969978.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, FCHuffman, MEbrahim, SStatin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2013;310(22):24512452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, REPalinkas, LABarrett-Connor, ELWingard, DLPlasma cholesterol and depressive symptoms in older men. Lancet 1993;341(8837):7579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muldoon, MFManuck, SBMatthews, KALowering cholesterol concentrations and mortality: a quantitative review of primary prevention trials. BMJ 1990;301(6747):309314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neaton, JDBlackburn, HJacobs, DKuller, LLee, DJSherwin, Ret al.Serum cholesterol level and mortality findings for men screened in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Multiple risk factor intervention trial research group. Arch Intern Med 1992;152(7):14901500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, MSmith, RChristophe, AVandoolaeghe, EVan Gastel, ANeels, Het al.Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in major depression and in depressed men with serious suicidal attempts: relationship with immune-inflammatory markers. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95(3):212221.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salter, MLow serum cholesterol and suicide. Lancet 1992;339(8802):1169Google ScholarPubMed
Yang, CCJick, SSJick, HLipid-lowering drugs and the risk of depression and suicidal behavior. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(16):19261932.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohler, OGasse, CPetersen, LIngstrup, KGNierenberg, AAMors, Oet al.The effect of concomitant treatment with SSRIs and statins: a population-based study. Am J Psychiatry 2016;173(8):807815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salagre, EFernandes, BSDodd, SBrownstein, DJBerk, MStatins for the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Affect Disord 2016;200: 235242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, XZhao, TQiu, YSu, MJiang, TZhou, Met al.Metabonomics approach to understanding acute and chronic stress in rat models. J Proteome Res 2009;8(5):25112518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, ZYZheng, XYGao, XXZhou, YZSun, HFZhang, LZet al.Study of plasma metabolic profiling and biomarkers of chronic unpredictable mild stress rats based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2010;24(24):35393546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zheng, SYu, MLu, XHuo, TGe, LYang, Jet al.Urinary metabonomic study on biochemical changes in chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression. Clin Chim Acta 2010;411(3–4):204209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, FJia, ZGao, PKong, HLi, XLu, Xet al.Metabonomics study of urine and plasma in depression and excess fatigue rats by ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. Mol Biosyst 2010;6(5):852861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, XJLi, ZYLi, ZFGao, XXZhou, YZSun, HFet al.Urinary metabonomic study using a CUMS rat model of depression. Magn Reson Chem 2012;50(3):187192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peet, MMurphy, BShay, JHorrobin, DDepletion of omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cell membranes of depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43(5):315319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maes, MChristophe, ADelanghe, JAltamura, CNeels, HMeltzer, HYLowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999;85(3):275291.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Logan, ACOmega-3 fatty acids and major depression: a primer for the mental health professional. Lipids Health Dis 2004;3:25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lotrich, FESears, BMcNamara, RKElevated ratio of arachidonic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids predicts depression development following interferon-alpha treatment: relationship with interleukin-6. Brain Behav Immun 2013;31: 4853.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Reedt Dortland, AKGiltay, EJvan Veen, Tvan Pelt, JZitman, FGPenninx, BWAssociations between serum lipids and major depressive disorder: results from the netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71(6):729736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demirkan, AIsaacs, AUgocsai, PLiebisch, GStruchalin, MRudan, Iet al.Plasma phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin concentrations are associated with depression and anxiety symptoms in a Dutch family-based lipidomics study. J Psychiatr Res 2013;47(3):357362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, XZheng, PZhao, XZhang, YHu, CLi, Jet al.Discovery and validation of plasma biomarkers for major depressive disorder classification based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res 2015;14(5):23222330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oliveira, TGChan, RBBravo, FVMiranda, ASilva, RRZhou, Bet al.The impact of chronic stress on the rat brain lipidome. Mol Psychiatry 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olvera, RLBearden, CEVelligan, DIAlmasy, LCarless, MACurran, JEet al.Common genetic influences on depression, alcohol, and substance use disorders in Mexican-American families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2011;156B(5):561568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheehan, DVLecrubier, YSheehan, KHAmorim, PJanavs, JWeiller, Eet al.The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 59Suppl. 201998 [22,33; quiz 34-57].Google Scholar
Knowles, EEKent, JW Jr.McKay, DRSprooten, EMathias, SRCurran, JEet al.Genome-wide linkage on chromosome 10q26 for a dimensional scale of major depression. J Affect Disord 2015;191: 123131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Almasy, LBlangero, JMultipoint quantitative-trait linkage analysis in general pedigrees. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62(5):11981211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glahn, DCCurran, JEWinkler, AMCarless, MAKent, JW Jr.Charlesworth, JCet al.High dimensional endophenotype ranking in the search for major depression risk genes. Biol Psychiatry 2012;71(1):614.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, BDAlmasy, LARainwater, DLSchneider, JLBlangero, JStern, MPet al.Diabetes and hypertension in Mexican American families: Relation to cardiovascular risk. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149(11):10471056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Development Core Team R: a language and environment for statistical computing; 2011.Google Scholar
Crawley, MJThe R book Wiley: Chichester; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowles, EECarless, MAde Almeida, MACurran, JEMcKay, DRSprooten, Eet al.Genome-wide significant localization for working and spatial memory: Identifying genes for psychosis using models of cognition. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2014;165(1):8495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsu, FFTurk, JThukkani, AKMessner, MCWildsmith, KRFord, DACharacterization of alkylacyl, alk-1-enylacyl and lyso subclasses of glycerophosphocholine by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. J Mass Spectrom 2003;38(7):752763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fahy, ESubramaniam, SMurphy, RCNishijima, MRaetz, CRShimizu, Tet al.Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids. J Lipid Res 2009;50 Suppl.:S9S14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abdelmagid, SAClarke, SENielsen, DEBadawi, AEl-Sohemy, AMutch, DMComprehensive profiling of plasma fatty acid concentrations in young healthy Canadian adults. PloS one 1022015.Google Scholar
Subramaniam, SFahy, EGupta, SSud, MByrnes, RWCotter, Det al.Bioinformatics and systems biology of the lipidome. Chem Rev 2011;111(10):64526490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, DLCox, MMLipids. In: Lehninger principles of biochemistry. 6th ed., W.H. Freeman; 2012. p. 343368.Google Scholar
Brown, HAMurphy, RCWorking towards an exegesis for lipids in biology. Nat Chem Biol 2009;5(9):602606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Regehr, WGCarey, MRBest, ARActivity-dependent regulation of synapses by retrograde messengers. Neuron 2009;63(2):154170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watkins, PAHamilton, JALeaf, ASpector, AAMoore, SAAnderson, REet al.Brain uptake and utilization of fatty acids: applications to peroxisomal biogenesis diseases. J Mol Neurosci 2001;16(2–3) [87,92; discussion 151-7].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Meer, GVoelker, DRFeigenson, GWMembrane lipids: where they are and how they behave. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2008;9(2):112124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, BAEngelman, DMLipid bilayer thickness varies linearly with acyl chain length in fluid phosphatidylcholine vesicles. J Mol Biol 1983;166(2):211217.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tillman, TSCascio, MEffects of membrane lipids on ion channel structure and function. Cell Biochem Biophys 2003;38(2):161190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawrence, TWilloughby, DAGilroy, DWAnti-inflammatory lipid mediators and insights into the resolution of inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 2002;2(10):787795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wellen, KEHotamisligil, GSInflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2005;115(5):11111119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearson, TAMensah, GAAlexander, RWAnderson, JLCannon, ROCriqui, Met al.Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American heart association. Circulation 2003;107(3):499511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coussens, LMWerb, ZInflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420(6917):860867.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, AHMaletic, VRaison, CLInflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2009;65(9):732741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raison, CLCapuron, LMiller, AHCytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression. Trends Immunol 2006;27(1):2431.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howren, MBLamkin, DMSuls, JAssociations of depression with C-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 2009;71(2):171186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowlati, YHerrmann, NSwardfager, WLiu, HSham, LReim, EKet al.A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2010;67(5):446457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, YHo, RCMak, AInterleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are elevated in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Affect Disord 2012;139(3):230239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, JKDerry, HMFagundes, CPInflammation: depression fans the flames and feasts on the heat. Am J Psychiatry 2015;172(11):10751091.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giles, GEMahoney, CRKanarek, RBOmega-3 fatty acids influence mood in healthy and depressed individuals. Nutr Rev 2013;71(11):727741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, PYHuang, SYSu, KPA meta-analytic review of polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions in patients with depression. Biol Psychiatry 2010;68(2):140147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, JKBelury, MAPorter, KBeversdorf, DQLemeshow, SGlaser, RDepressive symptoms, omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids, and inflammation in older adults. Psychosom Med 2007;69(3):217224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grosso, GPajak, AMarventano, SCastellano, SGalvano, FBucolo, Cet al.Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One 2014;9(5):e96905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bloch, MHHannestad, JOmega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 2012;17(12):12721282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Appleton, KMRogers, PJNess, ARUpdated systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(3):757770.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sublette, MEEllis, SPGeant, ALMann, JJMeta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(12):15771584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martins, JGEPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28(5):525542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcel, YLChristiansen, KHolman, RTThe preferred metabolic pathway from linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 1968;164(1):2534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kraguljac, NVReid, MWhite, DJones, Rden Hollander, JLowman, Det al.Neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res 2012;203(2-3):111125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, MLevant, BReichel, MGulbins, EKornhuber, JMuller, CPLipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milev, PMiranowski, SLim, KOMagnetic resonance spectroscopy: 31Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS). In: Lajtha, AJavitt, DCKantrowitz, J editors. Handbook of Neurochemistry. 3rd ed., Springer US; 2009. p. 425430.Google Scholar
Strakowski, SMDelbello, MPAdler, CMThe functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a review of neuroimaging findings. Mol Psychiatry 2005;10(1):105116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yildiz-Yesiloglu, AAnkerst, DPReview of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res 2006;147(1):125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maddock, RJBuonocore, MHMR spectroscopic studies of the brain in psychiatric disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2012;11: 199251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willey, JZRodriguez, CJCarlino, RFMoon, YPPaik, MCBoden-Albala, Bet al.Race-ethnic differences in the association between lipid profile components and risk of myocardial infarction: the northern Manhattan study. Am Heart J 2011;161(5):886892.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Knowles et al. supplementary material

Table S1

Download Knowles et al. supplementary material(File)
File 145 KB
Supplementary material: File

Knowles et al. supplementary material

Table S2

Download Knowles et al. supplementary material(File)
File 61 KB
Supplementary material: Image

Knowles et al. supplementary material

Figure S1

Download Knowles et al. supplementary material(Image)
Image 409 KB
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.
18
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The lipidome in major depressive disorder: Shared genetic influence for ether-phosphatidylcholines, a plasma-based phenotype related to inflammation, and disease risk
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The lipidome in major depressive disorder: Shared genetic influence for ether-phosphatidylcholines, a plasma-based phenotype related to inflammation, and disease risk
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The lipidome in major depressive disorder: Shared genetic influence for ether-phosphatidylcholines, a plasma-based phenotype related to inflammation, and disease risk
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *