3.Eight of the countries FRA surveyed in 2016 were included in the 2011 survey and six in the 2008 EU MIDIS I.
5.‘Gadjo-ness’, as a particular form of whiteness does not equal non-Roma people. In another piece I define it as discursive, institutional and relational racial ideologies that lay down social, economic, cultural and institutional privileges and powers not only for those identified as non-Roma and those who pass as non-Roma, but also for those who are ‘promoted’ from positions of inferiority to whiteness, such as those accepted as non-Roma owing to certain skills or talents validated by those who hold power.
Gadje is the generic term used by Romani people to refer to non-Roma.
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Hoyland, J. (2010 ) A Historical Survey of the Customs, Habits, & Present State of the Gypsies (Kindle Edition). Transcribed from the 1816 WM. Alexander edition by David Price, Kensington Library, London, p. 21.
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et al. (2015) Decade Stocktaking (Budapest, Hungary: Decade of Roma Inclusion Secretariat).
47.The first summer kindergarten for Roma children was organized by Romani CRISS in August 2001. The average daily duration of activities increased steadily from 4 hours per day, in the first week, to 5 hours in the second week and to 6 hours in the third week. Teachers pursued language and mathematical skills development, games and creative activities, civic, artistic activities, etc. In addition, the programme has included the establishment of an Educational Support Center that helped children after school, in the first grade. However, among other similar projects, from 2009 to 2011, the Ministry of Education implemented a national summer kindergarten project in 420 disadvantaged Roma communities.