1.On 19 April 2013, Kosovo and Serbian Governments signed the First Agreement on the principles governing normalization (First Agreement) aiming to settle Kosovo’s administrative powers over its territory and to grant Serbs living in northern Kosovo some level of autonomy.
10.The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) defines parallel structures as ‘bodies and institutions that have been or still are operational in Kosovo after 10 June 1999 and that are not mandated for under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244,’ the resolution that established the terms of the peace agreement following the conflict. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe: Mission in Kosovo, Department of Human Rights, Decentralization and Communities, Parallel Structures in Kosovo, 2006–2007. Available at: http://www.osce.org/kosovo/24618
12.Philips, D. (2012) Liberating Kosovo: Coercive Diplomacy and U.S. Intervention (Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs), p. 141.
13.During the 1990s, Kosovo Albanians set up similar structures of parallel schools, social support systems, and later paramilitary forces independent of Serbia. Fotiadis, A. (2009) Kosovo: Parallel Serb Administration Challenged (Inter Press Service), 25 March 2009. Available at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/192366766 16.In 1999, there were about 300,000 Serbs in Kosovo. Following the NATO intervention in 1999, Serbs withdrew into homogeneous ethnic enclaves. The largest enclave is north of the Ibar River, including North Mitrovica. Monitoring Rights Group International, Kosovo Overview: Minorities. Available at: http://www.minorityrights.org/2462/kosovo/serbs.html. According to the 2011 census, there is a Serb majority in Gracanica, Partesh, and Ranillug. Serbs represent over 45% of the total population in Novoberde, Shterpce, and Kllokot. The 2011 census did not include Serb-dominated areas in North Kosovo. Kosovo Agency of Statistics, Interactive access to census data. Available at: http://esk.rks-gov.net/rekos2011/?cid=2,92
27.Isak Skenderi, Director of The Voice of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians, 28 June 2013: Personal Interview.
33.Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe: Mission in Kosovo. Implementation of the Action Plan on the Strategy for the Integration of the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities in Kosovo, May 2011. Available at: http://www.osce.org/kosovo/77413 41.In 1999, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) opened temporary settlement camps for Roma in lead-contaminated areas in North Mitrovica, after their houses were burned and they were sent out from the Roma Mahala by Albanians who accused them of supporting Serbs during the war. UNHCR opened makeshift camps in Cesmin Lug and Zitkovac, while other IDPs occupied abandoned army barracks at Kablare (near Cesmin Lug) and Leposavic. Human Rights Watch (2009) Kosovo: Poisoned by Lead. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/kosovo0609webwcover_1.pdf
44.Tmava, M. and Beha, A. (2009) Helplessness-Roma, Ashkalia and Egyptian Forced Returned in Kosovo. Roma and Ashkalia Documentation Center.
46.Balkan Sunflowers Kosova (2012) School’s Out: An Education Survey in Ashkali, Egyptian and Roma Communities in 9 Kosovo Munciipalities (Pristina), 2012, p. 25.
48.Tmava, M. and Beha, A. (2009) Helplessness-Roma, Ashkalia and Egyptian Forced Returned in Kosovo. Roma and Ashkalia Documentation Center, 2009.
49.European Court of Human Rights (2012) Case of I.G. and Others v. Slovakia, Application no. 15966/04, 13 November 2012.
50.According to Balkan Sun Flower the number increased from only 20 children enrolled in primary school and one at high school in 1999 to 110 children, respectively 11 or 12 adolescents attending high school nowadays. A big achievement and a reason for pride of community workers is that more than half of those who attend high school are girls. See FXB Center blog Kosovo day 1: Obelic and Gracanica communities, June 25, 2013 available at http://harvardfxbcenter.wordpress.com/2013/06/25/kosovo-day-1-obelic-and-gracanica-communities/
51.Isak Skenderi, Director of The Voice of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians, June 28, 2013: Personal Interview. Contemporaneous notes of interview are on file with the authors.
53.Historians mention archives of the Lord High Treasures of the British Isle of Scotland from 1505 where a group of Roma described themselves as pilgrims lead by a lord of little Egypt.
64.Tmava, M. and Beha, A. (2009) Helplessness-Roma, Ashkalia and Egyptian Forced Returned in Kosovo (Roma and Ashkalia Documentation Center)