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  • Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, Volume 11
  • 2009, e2

Inflammation and neuropeptides: the connection in diabetic wound healing

  • Leena Pradhan (a1), Christoph Nabzdyk (a2), Nicholas D. Andersen (a1), Frank W. LoGerfo (a1) and Aristidis Veves (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2009

Abnormal wound healing is a major complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with nonhealing foot ulcerations leading in the worst cases to lower-limb amputation. Wound healing requires the integration of complex cellular and molecular events in successive phases of inflammation, cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. A link between wound healing and the nervous system is clinically apparent as peripheral neuropathy is reported in 30–50% of diabetic patients and is the most common and sensitive predictor of foot ulceration. Indeed, a bidirectional connection between the nervous and the immune systems and its role in wound repair has emerged as one of the focal features of the wound-healing dogma. This review provides a broad overview of the mediators of this connection, which include neuropeptides and cytokines released from nerve fibres, immune cells and cutaneous cells. In-depth understanding of the signalling pathways in the neuroimmune axis in diabetic wound healing is vital to the development of successful wound-healing therapies.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Aristidis Veves, Microcirculation Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Palmer 317, West Campus, One Deaconess Rd, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Tel: +1 617 632 7075; Fax: +1 617 632 0860; E-mail:
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Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
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