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Greydanus, Donald E. and Merrick, Joav 2016. Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan.
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Jensen, Pernille Linnert Beck, Hans Christian Petersen, Jørgen Hreinsson, Julius Wånggren, Kjell Laursen, Steen B. Sørensen, Pernille Dissing Christensen, Søren Tvorup and Andersen, Claus Yding 2013. Proteomic Analysis of Human Blastocoel Fluid and Blastocyst Cells. Stem Cells and Development, Vol. 22, Issue. 7, p. 1126.
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Williams, Stephen R. Zies, Deborah Mullegama, Sureni V. Grotewiel, Michael S. and Elsea, Sarah H. 2012. Smith-Magenis Syndrome Results in Disruption of CLOCK Gene Transcription and Reveals an Integral Role for RAI1 in the Maintenance of Circadian Rhythmicity. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 90, Issue. 6, p. 941.
Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioural disorder characterised by intellectual disability, self-injurious behaviours, sleep disturbance, obesity, and craniofacial and skeletal anomalies. Diagnostic strategies are focused towards identification of a 17p11.2 microdeletion encompassing the gene RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1) or a mutation of RAI1. Molecular evidence shows that most SMS features are due to RAI1 haploinsufficiency, whereas variability and severity are modified by other genes in the 17p11.2 region for 17p11.2 deletion cases. The functional role of RAI1 is not completely understood, but it is probably a transcription factor acting in several different biological pathways that are dysregulated in SMS. Functional studies based on the hypothesis that RAI1 acts through phenotype-specific pathways involving several downstream genes have shown that RAI1 gene dosage is crucial for normal regulation of circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and neurotransmitter function. Here, we review the clinical and molecular features of SMS and explore more recent studies supporting possible therapeutic strategies for behavioural management.
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