This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3P Brocklehurst , S Gates , K McKenzie-McHarg , Z Alfirevic , G Chamberlain . Are we prescribing multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids? A survey of practice in the UK. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 977–79.
4JA Quinlivan , SF Evans , SA Dunlop , LD Beazley , JP Newnham . Use of corticosteroids by Australian obstetricians–a survey of clinical practice. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 38: 1–7.
5JP Newnham , TJ Moss . Antenatal glucocorticoids and growth: single versus multiple doses in animal and human studies. Semin Neonatol 2001; 6: 285–92.
7F Aghajafari , K Murphy , S Matthews , A Ohlsson , K Amankwah , M Hannah . Repeated doses of antenatal corticosteroids in animals: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 186: 843–49.
9DA Guinn , MW Atkinson , L Sullivan , M Lee , S MacGregor , BV Parilla et al. Single vs weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm delivery: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001; 286: 1581
10F Aghajafari , K Murphy , A Ohlsson , K Amankwah , S Matthews , ME Hannah . Multiple versus single courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth: a pilot study. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2002; 24: 321–29.
11C McEvoy , S Bowling , K Williamson , D Lozano , L Tolaymat , L Izquierdo et al. The effect of a single remote course versus weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids on functional residual capacity in preterm infants: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 280–84.
12RJ Wapner , Y Sorokin , EA Thom , F Johnson , DJ Dudley , CY Spong National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network. Single versus weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids: evaluation of safety and efficacy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195: 633–42.
13CA Crowther , RR Haslam , JE Hiller , LW Doyle , JS Robinson . Australasian Collaborative Trial of Repeat Doses of Steroids (ACTORDS) Study Group. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome after repeat exposure to antenatal corticosteroids: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 367: 1913–919.
14CA Crowther , LW Doyle , RR Haslam , JE Hiller , JE Harding , JS Robinson . ACTORDS Study Group. Outcomes at 2 years of age after repeat doses of antenatal corticosteroids. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1179–189.
15RJ Wapner , Y Sorokin , L Mele , F Johnson , DJ Dudley , CY Spong et al. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Long-term outcomes after repeat doses of antenatal corticosteroids. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1190–198.
16WL Haung , LD Beazley , JA Quinlivan , SF Evans , JP Newnham , SA Dunlop . Effects of corticosteroids on brain growth in fetal sheep. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94: 213–18.
17SA Dunlop , MA Archer , JA Quinlivan , LD Beazley , JP Newnham . Multiple prenatal corticosteroids delay myelination in the ovine central nervous system. J Matern Fetal Med 1997; 6: 309–13.
19JA Quinlivan , LD Beazley , SF Evans , JP Newnham , SA Dunlop . Retinal maturation is delayed by repeated, but not single, maternal injections of betamethasone in sheep. Eye 2000; 14: 93–98.
20H Uno , L Lohmiller , C Thieme , JW Kemnitz , MJ Engle , EB Rocker et al. Brain damage induced by prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in fetal rhesus macaques, I: hippocampus. Dev Brain Res 1990; 53: 157–67.
21D Owen , SG Matthew . Repeated maternal glucocorticoid treatment affects activity and hippocampal NMDA receptor expression in juvenile guinea pigs. J Physiol 2007; 578: 249–57.
22NP French , R Hagan , SF Evans , A Mullan , JP Newnham . Repeated antenatal corticosteroids: effects on cerebral palsy and childhood behaviour. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 588–95.
23A Spinillo , E Viazzo , R Colleoni , A Chiara , R Maria Cerbo , E Fazzi . Two-year infant neurodevelopmental outcome after single or multiple antenatal courses of corticosteroids to prevent complications of prematurity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 217–24.
24NP French , R Hagan , SF Evans , M Godfrey , JP Newnham . Repeated antenatal corticosteroids: size at birth and subsequent development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 114–21.
25U Hasbargen , D Reber , H Versmold , A Schulze . Growth and development of children to 4 years of age after repeated antenatal steroid administration. Eur J Pediatr 2001; 160: 552–55.
26EK Anday , D Conway . Steroid therapy in the high-risk neonate: benefits and risks. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2003; 46: 190–210.
27KL Watterberg , SM Scott , C Backstrom , KL Gifford , KL Cook . Links between early adrenal function and respiratory outcome in preterm infants: airway inflammation and patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 320–24.
28PJ Ashwood , CA Crowther , KJ Willson , RR Haslam , DJ Kennaway , JE Hiller et al. Neonatal adrenal function after repeat dose prenatal corticosteroids: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194: 861–67
29MR Battin , C Bevan , JE Harding . Repeat doses of antenatal steroids and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197: 40. E1–6.
30TJ Moss , R Harding , JP Newnham . Lung function, arterial pressure and growth in sheep during early postnatal life following single and repeated prenatal corticosteroid treatments. Early Hum Dev 2002; 66: 11–24.
31SR Dalziel , V Parag , A Rodgers , JE Harding . Cardiovascular risk factors at age 30 following pre-term birth. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36: 907–15.
32DA Leon , M Johansson , F Rasmussen . Gestational age and growth rate of fetal mass are inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young adults: an epidemiologic study of 165,136 Swedish menaged 18 years. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 597–604.
33SR Dalziel , NK Walker , V Parag , C Mantell , HH Rea , A Rodgers , JE Harding . Cardiovascular risk factors after antenatal exposure to betamethasone: 30-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 1856–62.
34AB Dessens , HS Haas , JG Koppe . Twenty-year follow-up of antenatal corticosteroid treatment. Pediatrics 2000; 105: E77.
36E Tsoi , S Akmal , S Rane , C Otigbah , KH Nicolaides . Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in threatened preterm labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003; 21: 552–55.
37Z Alfirevic , H Allen-Coward , F Molina , CP Vinuesa , K Nicolaides . Targeted therapy for threatened preterm labor based on sonographic measurement of the cervical length: a randomized controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29: 47–50.
38CJ Lockwood , AE Senyei , MR Dische , D Casal , KD Shah , SN Thung et al. Fetal fibronectin in cervical and vaginal secretions as a predictor of preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 669–74.
39E Tsoi , S Akmal , L Geerts , B Jeffery , KH Nicolaides . Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006; 27: 368–72.
40R Gomez , R Romero , L Medina , JK Nien , T Chaiworapongsa , M Carstens et al. Cervicovaginal fibronectin improves the prediction of preterm delivery based on sonographic cervical length in patients with preterm uterine contractions and intact membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192: 350–59.
41T Schmitz , F Maillard , S Bessard-Bacquaert , G Kayem , Y Fulla , D Cabrol Selective use of fetal fibronectin detection after cervical length measurement to predict spontaneous preterm delivery in women with preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194: 138–43.
43JL Schucker , BM Mercer . Midtrimester premature rupture of the membranes. Semin Perinatol 1996; 20: 389–400.
44SH Yang , SJ Choi , CR Roh , JH Kim . Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. J Perinat Med 2004; 32: 42–48.
45ST Vermillion , DE Soper , J Chasedunn-Roark . Neonatal sepsis after betamethasone administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181: 320–27.
46S Abbasi , D Hirsch , J Davis , J Tolosa , N Stouffer , R Debbs Effect of single versus multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids on maternal and neonatal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182: 1243–249.
47MJ Lee , J Davies , D Guinn , L Sullivan , MW Atkinson , S McGregor Single versus weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 274–81.
48K Hecher , CM Bilardo , RH Stigter , Y Ville , BJ Hackeloer , HJ Kok et al. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001; 18: 564–70.
49AA Baschat , U Gembruch , CR Harman . The sequence of changes in Doppler and biophysical parameters as severe fetal growth restriction worsens. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001; 18: 571–77.
50MG Zlatnik , YW Cheng , ME Norton , M Thiet , AB Caughey . Placenta previa and the risk of preterm delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 20: 719–23.
51TY Leung , LW Chan , WH Tam , TN Leung , TK Lau . Risk and prediction of preterm delivery in pregnancies complicated by antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin before 34 weeks. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2001; 52: 227–31.
52NIH Consensus Conference. Effect of Corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. JAMA 1995; 273: 413–18.
53PL Ballard and GC Liggins . Glucocorticoid activity in cord serum: comparison of hydrocortisone and betamethasone regimens. J Pediatr 1982; 101: 468–70.
56AH Jobe , RF Soll . Choice and dose of corticosteroid for antenatal treatments. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 878–81.
57JB Derks , DA Giussani , LM Van Dam , SL Jenkins , JA Winter , XF Zhao et al. Differential effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone fetal administration of parturition in sheep. J Soc Gynecol Investig 1996; 3: 336–41.
58MR Bar-Lev , A Maayan-Metzger , I Matok , Z Heyman , E Sivan , J Kuint . Short-term outcomes in low birth weight infants following antenatal exposure to betamethasone versus dexamethasone. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 484–88.
59O Baud , L Foix-L'Helias , M Kaminski , F Audibert , PH Jarreau , E Papiernik et al. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and cystic periventricular leukomalacia in very premature infants. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1190–196.
60A Elimian , D Garry , R Figueroa , A Spitzer , V Wiencek , JG Quirk . Antenatal betamethasone compared with dexamethasone (betacode trial): a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 26–30.