Charlesworth, B. & Charlesworth, D. (1976). An experiment on recombination load in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetical Research 23, 167–183.
Chinnici, J. P. (1971). Modification of recombination frequency in Drosophila. II. The polygenic control of crossingover. Genetics 69, 75–96.
Crow, J. F. (1970). Genetic loads and the cost of natural selection. In Mathematical Topics in Population Genetics (ed. Kojima, K.). Berlin. Springer-Verlag.
Crow, J. F. (1979). Minor viability mutants in Drosophila. Genetics 92 (suppl.), 165–172.
Crow, J. F. (1983). Disease and evolution. Evolution 37, 863–865.
Crow, J. F. & Kimura, M. (1979). Efficiency of truncation selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 76, 396–399.
Crow, J. F. & Denniston, C. (1981). The mutation component of genetic damage. Science 212, 888–893.
Dishler, V. YA. (1983). Induced recombinogenesis in higher plants. Zinatne, Riga (in Russian).
Feldman, M. W., Christiansen, F. B. & Brooks, L. D. (1980). Evolution of recombination in a constant environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 77, 4838–4841.
Haldane, J. B. S. (1957). The cost of natural selection. Journal of Genetics 55, 511–526.
Karlin, S. & McGregor, J. (1974). Towards the theory of evolution of the modifier gene. Theoretical Population Biology 5, 59–103.
Kimura, M. & Maruyama, T. (1966). The mutational load with epistatic gene interactions in fitness. Genetics 54, 1337–1351.
Kimura, M. & Crow, J. P. (1978). Effect of overall phenotypic selection on genetic change at individual loci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 75, 6168–6171.
Kondrashov, A. S. (1982). Selection against harmful mutations in large sexual and asexual populations. Genetical Research 40, 325–332.
Kondrashov, A. S. (1984). Rate of evolution in changing environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 107, 249–260.
Kreitman, M. (1983). Nucleotide polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Nature 304, 412–416.
Krutyakov, V. M., Belyakova, N. V., Kleiner, N. E., Leoina, O. K., Shevelev, I. V. (1983). Eucaryotic 3–5 exonuclease correcting DNA polymerase errors. Dokladi Akademyi Nauk SSSR 272, 1491–1494.
Kunkel, T. A. & Loeb, L. A. (1981). Fidelity of mammalian DNA polymerases. Science 213, 765–767.
Langley, C. H., Montgomery, E. & Quattlebaum, W. F. (1982). Restriction map variation in the Adh region of Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 79, 5631–5635.
Leigh, E. G. (1973). The evolution of mutation rates. Genetics 73, (suppl.), 1–18.
Li, W.-H., Gojobori, T. & Nei, M. (1981). Pseudogenes as a paradigme of neutral evolution. Nature 292, 8237–8239.
Loucas, M., Vegrini, Y. & Krimbas, C. B. (1981). The genetics of Drosophila subobscura populations. XVII. Further genie heterogeneity within electromorphs by urea denaturation and the effect of the increased genie variability on linkage disequilibrium studies. Genetics 97, 429–441.
Maynard, Smith J. (1978). The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press.
Miyata, T. (1982). Evolutionary changes and functional constraints in DNA sequences. In Molecular Evolution, Protein Polymorphism and Neutral Theory (ed. Kimura, M.), pp. 233–268. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Mukai, T. (1980). The genetic structure of natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. XIV. Effects of the incomplete dominance of the IN(2LR) SM1 (Cy) chromosome on the estimates of various genetic parameters. Genetics 94, 169–184.
Mukai, T., Chigusa, S. T., Mettler, L. E. & Crow, J. P. (1972). Mutation rate and dominance of genes affecting viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 72, 335–355.
Mukai, T. & Cockerman, C. C. (1977). Spontaneous mutation rates of enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 74, 2514–2517.
Mukai, T., Kusakabe, S. & Tachida, H. (1983). Indirect negative evidence for frequency-dependent selection with respect to viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Japanese Journal of Genetics 58, 297–314.
Neel, J. V. & Rothman, E. D. (1978). Indirect estimates of mutation rates in tribal Amerindians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 75, 5585–5588.
Neel, J. V., Mohrenveiser, H. W. & Meisler, M. H. (1980). Rate of spontaneous mutations at human loci encoding protein structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 77, 6037–6041.
Ohta, T. (1976). Role of very slightly deleterious mutations in molecular evolution and polymorphism. Theoretical Population Biology 10, 254–275.
Perkins, D. P. & Barry, E. G. (1977). The cytogenetics of Neurospora. Advances in Genetics 19, 133–285.
Schmalhausen, I. I. (1949). Factors of Evolution: The Theory of Stabilizing Selection. Philadelphia.
Schmalhausen, I. I. (1982). Organisms as a whole in an individual and historical development. Moscow, Nauka (in Russian).
Selander, R. K. & Levin, B. R. (1980). Genetic diversity and structure in Escherichia coli populations. Science 210, 545–547.
Shields, W. M. (1982). Philopatry, Inbreeding and the Evolution of Sex. State University of New York Press, Albany.
Simmons, M. J. & Crow, J. F. (1977). Mutations affecting fitness in Drosophila populations. Annual Review of Genetics 11, 49–78.
Tucic, N., Ayala, F. J. & Marinkovic, D. (1981). Correlation between recombination frequency and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetica 56, 61–71.
Turner, J. R. G. (1967). Why does the genome not congeal? Evolution 21, 645–656.
Whitehouse, H. L. K.Genetic Recombination: Understanding the Mechanisms. New York: John Wiley.