In the medaka, Oryzias latipes, sex is determined chromosomally. The sex chromosomes differ from those of mammals in that the X and Y chromosomes are highly homologous. Using backcross panels for linkage analysis, we mapped 21 sequence tagged site (STS) markers on the sex chromosomes (linkage group 1). The genetic map of the sex chromosome was established using male and female meioses. The genetic length of the sex chromosome was shorter in male than in female meioses. The region where male recombination is suppressed is the region close to the sex-determining gene y, while female recombination was suppressed in both the telomeric regions. The restriction in recombination does not occur uniformly on the sex chromosome, as the genetic map distances of the markers are not proportional in male and female recombination. Thus, this observation seems to support the hypothesis that the heterogeneous sex chromosomes were derived from suppression of recombination between autosomal chromosomes. In two of the markers, Yc-2 and Casp6, which were expressed sequence-tagged (EST) sites, polymorphisms of both X and Y chromosomes were detected. The alleles of the X and Y chromosomes were also detected in O. curvinotus, a species related to the medaka. These markers could be used for genotyping the sex chromosomes in the medaka and other species, and could be used in other studies on sex chromosomes.
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