Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-4wks4 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-28T00:53:58.480Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Chemical weathering and erosion responses to changing monsoon climate in the Late Miocene of Southwest Asia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 June 2019

Peter D Clift*
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA Research Center for Earth System Science, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, China
Denise K Kulhanek
International Ocean Discovery Program, Texas A&M University, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Peng Zhou
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Melanie G Bowen
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115, USA
Sophie M Vincent
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Mitchell Lyle
College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503, USA
Annette Hahn
MARUM, Centre for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*Author for correspondence: Peter D Clift, Email:


The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.

Original Article
© Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


An, Z, Sun, D, Chen, M, Sun, Y, Li, L and Chen, B (2000) Red clay sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau and paleoclimate events of the upper Tertiary. Disiji Yanjiu = Quaternary Sciences 20, 435–46.Google Scholar
Bahr, A, Jiménez-Espejo, FJ, Kolasinac, N, Grunert, P, Hernández-Molina, FJ, Röhl, U, Voelker, AHL, Escutia, C, Stow, DAV, Hodell, D and Alvarez-Zarikian, CA (2014) Deciphering bottom current velocity and paleoclimate signals from contourite deposits in the Gulf of Cádiz during the last 140 kyr: an inorganic geochemical approach. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, 3145–60. doi: 10.1002/2014GC005356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balsam, WL, Damuth, JE, Schneider, RR and Fox, GL (1997) Comparison of shipboard vs. shore-based spectral data from Amazon fan cores: implications for interpreting sediment composition. In Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 155 (eds RD Flood, DJW Piper, A Klaus and LC Peterson), pp. 193215. College Station, Texas: Ocean Drilling Program.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berner, RA and Berner, EK (1997) Silicate weathering and climate. In Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change (ed. Ruddiman, WF), pp. 353–65. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Betzler, C, Eberli, GP, Kroon, D, Wright, JD, Swart, PK, Nath, BN, Alvarez-Zarikian, CA, Alonso-García, M, Bialik, OM, Blättler, CL, Guo, JA, Haffen, S, Horozai, S, Inoue, M, Jovane, L, Lanci, L, Laya, JC, Mee, ALH, Lüdmann, T, Nakakuni, M, Niino, K, Petruny, LM, Pratiwi, SD, Reijmer, JJG, Reolid, J, Slagle, AL, Sloss, CR, Su, X, Yao, Z and Young, JR (2016) The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds. Scientific Reports 6, 29838. doi: 10.1038/srep29838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhattacharya, GCB, Chaubey, AK, Murty, GPS, Srinivas, S, Sarma, KV, Subrahmanyam, V and Krishna, KS (1994) Evidence for seafloor spreading in the Laxmi Basin, northeastern Indian Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 125, 211–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blum, JD and Erel, Y (1997) Rb/Sr isotope systematics of a granitic soil chronosequence: the importance of biotite weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 3193–204. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00148-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bookhagen, B and Burbank, DW (2006) Topography, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L08405. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026037.Google Scholar
Boos, WR and Kuang, Z (2010) Dominant control of the South Asian monsoon by orographic insulation versus plateau heating. Nature 463, 218–22. doi: 10.1038/nature08707.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burbank, DW, Beck, RA and Mulder, T (1996) The Himalayan foreland basin. In The Tectonics of Asia (eds Yin, A and Harrison, TM), pp. 149–88. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Burbank, DW, Blythe, AE, Putkonen, J, Pratt-Sitaula, B, Gabet, E, Oskins, M, Barros, A and Ojha, TP (2003) Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas. Nature 426, 652–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burbank, DW, Derry, LA and France-Lanord, C (1993) Reduced Himalayan sediment production 8 Myr ago despite an intensified monsoon. Nature 364, 4850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burdige, DJ (1993) The biogeochemistry of manganese and iron reduction in marine sediments. Earth-Science Reviews 35, 249–84. doi: 10.1016/0012-8252(93)90040-E.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD (2017) Cenozoic sedimentary records of climate-tectonic coupling in the Western Himalaya. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 4, 122. doi: 10.1186/s40645-017-0151-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD, Giosan, L, Blusztajn, J, Campbell, IH, Allen, CM, Pringle, M, Tabrez, A, Danish, M, Rabbani, MM, Carter, A and Lückge, A (2008a) Holocene erosion of the Lesser Himalaya triggered by intensified summer monsoon. Geology 36, 7982. doi: 10.1130/G24315A.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD, Giosan, L, Carter, A, Garzanti, E, Galy, V, Tabrez, AR, Pringle, M, Campbell, IH, France-Lanord, C, Blusztajn, J, Allen, C, Alizai, A, Lückge, A, Danish, M and Rabbani, MM (2010) Monsoon control over erosion patterns in the Western Himalaya: possible feed-backs into the tectonic evolution. In Monsoon Evolution and Tectonic-Climate Linkage in Asia (eds Clift, PD, Tada, R and Zheng, H), pp. 181213. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 342.Google Scholar
Clift, PD, Hodges, K, Heslop, D, Hannigan, R, Hoang, LV and Calves, G (2008b) Greater Himalayan exhumation triggered by Early Miocene monsoon intensification. Nature Geoscience 1, 875–80. doi: 10.1038/ngeo351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD, Shimizu, N, Layne, G, Gaedicke, C, Schlüter, HU, Clark, MK and Amjad, S (2001) Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the western Himalaya and Karakoram. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, 1039–51.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD, Wan, S and Blusztajn, J (2014) Reconstructing chemical weathering, physical erosion and monsoon intensity since 25 Ma in the northern South China Sea: a review of competing proxies. Earth-Science Reviews 130, 86102. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clift, PD, Zhou, P, Stockli, DF and Blusztajn, J (2018) Regional pliocene exhumation of the lesser Himalaya in the Indus Drainage. Solid Earth 10, 647–61. doi: 10.5194/se-2018-132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curry, WB, Ostermann, DR, Guptha, MVS and Itekkot, V (1992) Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian Sea; evidence from sediment traps. In Upwelling Systems; Evolution since the Early Miocene (eds Summerhayes, CP, Prell, WL and Emeis, KC), pp. 93106. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 64.Google Scholar
DeCelles, PG, Kapp, P, Gehrels, GE and Ding, L (2014) Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: implications for the age of initial India-Asia collision. Tectonics 33, 824–49. doi: 10.1002/2014TC003522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
East, AE, Clift, PD, Carter, A, Alizai, A and VanLaningham, S (2015) Fluvial-eolian interactions in sediment routing and sedimentary signal buffering: an example from the Indus Basin and Thar Desert. Journal of Sedimentary Research 85, 715–28. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2015.42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleitmann, D, Burns, SJ, Mudelsee, M, Neff, U, Kramers, J, Mangini, A and Matter, A (2003) Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300, 1737–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galy, V, France-Lanord, C, Beyssac, O, Faure, P, Kudrass, H-R and Palhol, F (2007) Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system. Nature 450, 407–11. doi: 10.1038/nature06273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giosan, L, Flood, RD, Grutzner, J and Mudie, P (2002) Paleoceanographic significance of sediment color on western North Atlantic Drifts: II. Late Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentation. Marine Geology 189, 4361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giosan, L, Ponton, C, Usman, M, Blusztajn, J, Fuller, DQ, Galy, V, Haghipour, N, Johnson, JE, McIntyre, C, Wacker, L and Eglinton, TI (2017) Short communication: massive erosion in monsoonal central India linked to late Holocene land cover degradation. Earth Surface Dynamics 5, 781–9. doi: 10.5194/esurf-5-781-2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Govin, A, Holzwarth, U, Heslop, D, Keeling, LF, Zabel, M, Mulitza, S, Collins, JA and Chiessi, CM (2012) Distribution of major elements in Atlantic surface sediments (36°N-49°S): imprint of terrigenous input and continental weathering. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q01013. doi: 10.1029/2011GC003785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, AK, Yuvaraja, A, Prakasam, M, Clemens, SC and Velu, A (2015) Evolution of the South Asian monsoon wind system since the late Middle Miocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 438, 160–7. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hahn, A, Bowen, MG, Clift, PD, Kulhanek, DK, Lyle, MW and Zabel, M (2019) Testing the analytical performance of handheld XRF using marine sediments of IODP Expedition 355. Geological Magazine 156, 15. doi: 10.1017/S0016756819000189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanson, GN (1978) The application of trace elements to the petrogenesis of igneous rocks of granitic composition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 38, 2643. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(78)90124-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, NBW (2006) The elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the monsoon. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 241, 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbert, TD, Lawrence, KT, Tzanova, A, Peterson, LC, Caballero-Gill, R and Kelly, CS (2016) Late Miocene global cooling and the rise of modern ecosystems. Nature Geoscience 9, 843–7. doi: 10.1038/ngeo2813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Honjo, S, Dymond, J, Prell, W and Ittekkot, V (1999) Monsoon controlled export fluxes to the interior of the Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Research II 46, 1859–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, D, Clift, PD, Wan, S, Böning, P, Hannigan, R, Hillier, S and Blusztajn, J (2016) Testing chemical weathering proxies in Miocene–Recent fluvial-derived sediments in the South China Sea. In River-Dominated Shelf Sediments of East Asian Seas (eds Clift, PD, Harff, J, Wu, J and Qiu, Y). Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 429.Google Scholar
Huang, Y, Clemens, SC, Liu, W, Wang, Y and Prell, WL (2007) Large-scale hydrological change drove the late Miocene C4 plant expansion in the Himalayan foreland and Arabian Peninsula. Geology 35, 531–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huyghe, P, Galy, A, Mugnier, J-L and France-Lanord, C (2001) Propagation of the thrust system and erosion in the Lesser Himalaya: geochemical and sedimentological evidence. Geology 29, 1007–10.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, J, Balsam, W, Chen, JU and Liu, L (2002) Rapid and quantitative measurement of hematite and goethite in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Clays and Clay Minerals 50, 208–16. doi: 10.1346/000986002760832801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jonell, TN, Li, Y, Blusztajn, J, Giosan, L and Clift, PD (2018) Signal or noise? Isolating grain size effects on Nd and Sr isotope variability in Indus delta sediment provenance. Chemical Geology 485, 5673. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.03.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karim, A and Veizer, J (2002) Water balance of the Indus river basin and moisture source in the Karakoram and western Himalayas: implications from hydrogen and oxygen isotopes river water. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 4362. doi: 10.1029/2000JD000253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kido, Y, Koshikawa, T and Tada, R (2006) Rapid and quantitative major element analysis method for wet fine-grained sediments using an XRF microscanner. Marine Geology 229, 209–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolla, V and Coumes, F (1987) Morphology, internal structure, seismic stratigraphy, and sedimentation of Indus Fan. AAPG Bulletin 71, 650–77.Google Scholar
Kroon, D, Steens, T and Troelstra, SR (1991) Onset of Monsoonal related upwelling in the western Arabian Sea as revealed by planktonic foraminifers. In Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 117 (eds Prell, WNiitsuma, N), pp. 257–63. College Station, Texas: Ocean Drilling Program.Google Scholar
Kump, LR, Brantley, SL and Arthur, MA (2000) Chemical weathering, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 28, 611–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kutzbach, JE, Prell, WL and Ruddiman, WF (1993) Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geology 101, 177–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, Y, Clift, PD, Böning, P, Blusztajn, J, Murray, RW, Ireland, T, Pahnke, K and Giosan, L (2018) Continuous signal propagation in the Indus Submarine Canyon since the Last Deglacial. Marine Geology 406, 159–76. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2018.09.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupker, M, France-Lanord, C, Galy, V, Lave, J, Gaillardet, J, Gajured, AP, Guilmette, C, Rahman, M, Singh, SK and Sinha, R (2012) Predominant floodplain over mountain weathering of Himalayan sediments (Ganga basin). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 84, 410–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupker, M, France-Lanord, C, Galy, V, Lave, J and Kudrass, H (2013) Increasing chemical weathering in the Himalayan system since the Last Glacial Maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 365, 243–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyle, M, Kulhanek, DK, Bowen, MG and Hahn, A (2018) Data report: X-ray fluorescence studies of Site U1457 sediments, Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program 355. doi: 10.14379/iodp.proc.355.203.2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyle, M, Olivarez Lyle, A, Gorgas, T, Holbourn, A, Westerhold, T, Hathorne, E, Kimoto, K and Yamamoto, S (2012) Data report: raw and normalized elemental data along the Site U1338 splice from X-ray fluorescence scanning. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program 320/321. doi: 10.2204/iodp.proc.320321.203.2012.Google Scholar
Miles, PR and Roest, WR (1993) Earliest sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies in the north Arabian Sea and the ocean-continent transition. Geophysical Journal International 115, 1025–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molnar, P (2001) Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates. Geology 29, 1071–4.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molnar, P, England, P and Martinod, J (1993) Mantle dynamics, uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian Monsoon. Reviews of Geophysics 31, 357–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Najman, Y (2006) The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth-Science Reviews 74, 172.Google Scholar
Najman, Y, Appel, E, Boudagher-Fadel, M, Bown, P, Carter, A, Garzanti, E, Godin, L, Han, J, Liebke, U, Oliver, G, Parrish, R and Vezzoli, G (2010) Timing of India-Asia collision: geological, biostratigraphic, and palaeomagnetic constraints. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, B12416. doi: 10.1029/2010JB007673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Najman, Y, Bickle, M, Garzanti, E, Pringle, M, Barfod, D, Brozovic, N, Burbank, D and Ando, S (2009) Reconstructing the exhumation history of the Lesser Himalaya, NW India, from a multitechnique provenance study of the foreland basin Siwalik Group. Tectonics 28, TC5018. doi: 10.1029/2009TC002506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesbitt, HW, Markovics, G and Price, RC (1980) Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline earths during continental weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 44, 1659–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olde, K, Jarvis, I, Uličný, D, Pearce, MA, Trabucho-Alexandre, J, Čech, S, Gröcke, DR, Laurin, J, Švábenická, L and Tocher, BA (2015) Geochemical and palynological sea-level proxies in hemipelagic sediments: a critical assessment from the Upper Cretaceous of the Czech Republic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 435, 222–43. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.06.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pandey, DK, Clift, PD, Kulhanek, DK, Andò, S, Bendle, JAP, Bratenkov, S, Griffith, EM, Gurumurthy, GP, Hahn, A, Iwai, M, Khim, B-K, Kumar, A, Kumar, AG, Liddy, HM, Lu, H, Lyle, MW, Mishra, R, Radhakrishna, T, Routledge, CM, Saraswat, R, Saxena, R, Scardia, G, Sharma, GK, Singh, AD, Steinke, S, Suzuki, K, Tauxe, L, Tiwari, M, Xu, Z and Yu, Z (2016a) Site U1456. In Arabian Sea Monsoon. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, vol. 355 (eds Pandey, DK, Clift, PD, Kulhanek, DK and Expedition 355 Scientists). pp. 161. College Station, Texas: International Ocean Discovery Program. doi: 10.14379/iodp.proc.355.103.2016.Google Scholar
Pandey, DK, Clift, PD, Kulhanek, DK and Expedition 355 Scientists (2016b) Arabian Sea Monsoon. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program, vol. 355. pp. 110. College Station, Texas: International Ocean Discovery Program. doi: 10.14379/iodp.proc.355.2016.Google Scholar
Pandey, OP, Agrawal, PK and Negi, JG (1995) Lithospheric structure beneath Laxmi Ridge and late Cretaceous geodynamic events. Geo-Marine Letters 15, 8591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pease, PP, Tchakerian, VP and Tindale, NW (1998) Aerosols over the Arabian Sea: geochemistry and source areas for aeolian desert dust. Journal of Arid Environments 39, 477–96. doi: 10.1006/jare.1997.0368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prell, WL, Murray, DW, Clemens, SC and Anderson, DM (1992) Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon: evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In Synthesis of Results from Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean (eds Duncan, RA, Rea, DK, Kidd, RB, von Rad, UWeissel, JK), pp. 447–69. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. Geophysical Monograph, 70.Google Scholar
Quade, J, Cerling, TE and Bowman, JR (1989) Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan. Nature 342, 163–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raymo, ME and Ruddiman, WF (1992) Tectonic forcing of Late Cenozoic climate. Nature 359, 117–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rea, DK, Snoeckx, H and Joseph, LH (1998) Late Cenozoic eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the northern hemisphere. Paleoceanography 13, 215–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiners, PW, Ehlers, TA, Mitchell, SG and Montgomery, DR (2003) Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades. Nature 426, 645–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richter, TO, van der Gaast, S, Koster, B, Vaars, A, Gieles, R, de Stigter, HC, De Haas, H and van Weering, TCE (2006) The Avaatech XRF Core Scanner: technical description and applications to NE Atlantic sediments. In New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis (ed. Rothwell, RG), pp. 3950. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 267.Google Scholar
Riebe, CS, Kirchner, JW and Finkel, RC (2004) Erosional and climatic effects in long-term chemical weathering rates in granitic landscapes spanning diverse climate regimes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 547–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, SG, Sahota, JTS and Oldfield, F (2000) Early diagenesis in North Atlantic abyssal plain sediments characterized by rock-magnetic and geochemical indices. Marine Geology 163, 77107. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(99)00108-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohling, EJ, Liu, QS, Roberts, AP, Stanford, JD, Rasmussen, SO, Langen, PL and Siddall, M (2009) Controls on the East Asian monsoon during the last glacial cycle, based on comparison between Hulu Cave and polar ice-core records. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 3291–302. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Routledge, CM, Kulhanek, DK, Tauxe, L, Scardia, G, Singh, AD, Steinke, S, Griffith, EM and Saraswat, R (2019) A revised chronostratigraphic framework for International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 sites in Laxmi basin, eastern Arabian Sea. Geological Magazine 156, 118. doi: 10.1017/S0016756819000104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowley, DB and Currie, BS (2006) Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. Nature 439, 677–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sangode, SJ and Bloemendal, J (2004) Pedogenic transformation of magnetic minerals in Pliocene-Pleistocene palaeosols of the Siwalik Group, NW Himalaya, India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 212, 95118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saylor, JE, Quade, J, Dettman, DL, DeCelles, PG, Kapp, PA and Ding, L (2009) The Late Miocene through present paleoelevation history of southwestern Tibet. American Journal of Science 309, 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnetger, B, Brumsack, HJ, Schale, H, Hinrichs, J and Dittert, L (2000) Geochemical characteristics of deep-sea sediments from the Arabian Sea: a high-resolution study. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 47, 2735–68. doi: 10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00047-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwertmann, U (1971) Transformation of hematite to goethite in soils. Nature 232, 624–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, S, Parkash, B, Awasthi, AK and Kumar, S (2011) Late Miocene record of palaeovegetation from Siwalik palaeosols of the Ramnagar sub-basin, India. Current Science 100, 213–22.Google Scholar
Singhvi, AK, Williams, MAJ, Rajaguru, SN, Misra, VN, Chawla, S, Stokes, S, Chauhan, N, Francis, T, Ganjoo, RK and Humphreys, GS (2010) A 200 ka record of climatic change and dune activity in the Thar Desert, India. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 3095–105. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spicer, RA, Harris, NBW, Widdowson, M, Herman, AB, Guo, S, Valdes, PJ, Wolfe, JA and Kelley, SP (2003) Constant elevation of southern Tibet over the past 15 million years. Nature 421, 622–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinke, S, Groeneveld, J, Johnstone, H and Rendle-Bühring, R (2010) East Asian summer monsoon weakening after 7.5 Ma: evidence from combined planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca and δ18O (ODP Site 1146; northern South China Sea). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 289, 3343. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, K, Yamamoto, M and Seki, O (2019) Stable isotopic evolution of leaf waxes from IODP Site U1456. Geological Magazine 156.Google Scholar
Tada, R, Zheng, H and Clift, PD (2016) Evolution and variability of the Asian monsoon and its potential linkage with uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 3, 126. doi 10.1186/s40645-016-0080-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tauxe, L and Opdyke, ND (1982) A time framework based on magnetostratigraphy of the Siwalik sediments of the Khaur arae, northern Pakistan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 37, 4361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, SR and McLennan, SM (1995) The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Reviews of Geophysics 33, 241–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vögeli, N, Najman, Y, Beek, PVD, Huyghe, P, Wynn, PM, Govin, G, Veen, IVD and Sachse, D (2017) Lateral variations in vegetation in the Himalaya since the Miocene and implications for climate evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 471, 19. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.04.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wan, S, Clift, PD, Zhao, D, Hovius, N, Munhoven, G, France-Lanord, C, Wang, Y, Xiong, Z, Huang, J, Yu, Z, Zhang, J, Ma, W, Zhang, G, Li, A and Li, T (2017) Enhanced silicate weathering of tropical shelf sediments exposed during glacial lowstands: a sink for atmospheric CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 200, 123–44. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.12.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wan, S, Li, A, Clift, PD and Stuut, J-BW (2007) Development of the East Asian monsoon: mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 561–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, AJ, Galy, A and Bickle, MJ (2005) Tectonic and climatic controls on silicate weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235, 211–28. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.03.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weltje, GJ, Bloemsma, MR, Tjallingii, R, Heslop, D, Röhl, U and Croudace, IW (2015) Prediction of geochemical composition from XRF core scanner data: a new multivariate approach including automatic selection of calibration samples and quantification of uncertainties. In Micro-XRF Studies of Sediment Cores: Applications of a non-destructive tool for the environmental sciences (eds Croudace, IW and Rothwell, RG), pp. 507534. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whipple, KX and Tucker, GE (1999) Dynamics of the stream-power river incision model: implications for height limits of mountain ranges, landscape response timescales, and research needs. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 104, 17661–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zachos, J, Pagani, M, Sloan, L, Thomas, E and Billups, K (2001) Trends, rythms and abberations in global climate 65 Ma to Present. Science 292, 686–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Clift et al. supplementary material

Clift et al. supplementary material 1

Download Clift et al. supplementary material(File)
File 794 KB