Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-18T01:08:45.616Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Tokoro Belt (NE Hokkaido): an exhumed, Jurassic – Early Cretaceous seamount in the Late Cretaceous accretionary prism of northern Japan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 June 2019

Shunta Sakai*
Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki-aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
Naoto Hirano
Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki-aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, Kawauchi 41, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8576, Japan
Yildirim Dilek
Department of Geology & Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
Shiki Machida
Ocean Resources Research Center for Next Generation, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Kazutaka Yasukawa
Ocean Resources Research Center for Next Generation, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Yasuhiro Kato
Ocean Resources Research Center for Next Generation, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan
Author for correspondence: Shunta Sakai, Email:


The Tokoro Belt exposed in NE Hokkaido (Japan) represents part of a Late Cretaceous accretionary complex, which includes variously metamorphosed volcanic rocks that are interbedded with chert, lenticular limestone and some fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The Tokoro Belt is notably different from other Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes around the Pacific Rim because of widespread occurrence of basalts and volcaniclastic rocks in it. The Nikoro Group, characterized by widespread occurrence of volcanic rocks, is divided into western, eastern and southern sections based on the internal structure, geochemical affinities and metamorphic grades of their volcanic lithologies. OIB (ocean island basalt)-type volcanic rocks with low-grade metamorphic overprint predominate in the western and southern sections, whereas MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt)- and OIA (ocean island alkaline basalt)-type rocks in the eastern section with partly high-pressure metamorphism make up the northern part of the eastern section. Trace element patterns display transitional trends from MORB to OIA geochemical affinities. OIB-type rocks display trace element characteristics similar to those of shield volcano lavas on Hawaii, rather than small and mainly alkaline, Polynesian hotspot lavas; furthermore, they show significant HREE (heavy rare earth element) enrichment probably caused by plume–ridge interaction. Widespread OIBs in the Tokoro Belt represents tectonic slices of a large (>80 km wide) Hawaiian-style, seamount shield volcano on the Izanagi oceanic plate that was accreted into the continental margin of Far East Asia in the Late Cretaceous.

Original Article
© Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anma, R, Ogawa, Y, Moore, G, Kawamura, K, Sasaki, T, Kawamaki, S, Dilek, Y, Michiguchi, Y, Endo, R, Akaiwa, S and YK99-09, YK-08, YK05-08 & YK06-02 Shipboard Science Parties (2011) Structural profile and development of accretionary complex in the Nankai trough, off Kii peninsula Southwest Japan: results of submersible studies. In Accretionary Prisms and Convergent Margin Tectonics in the Northwest Pacific Basin (eds Ogawa, Y, Anma, R and Dilek, Y), pp. 169196. Dordrecht: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aries, S, Valladon, M, Polvé, M and Dupré, B (2000) A routine method for oxide and hydroxide interference corrections in ICP-MS chemical analysis of environmental and geological samples. Geostandards Newsletter 24, 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arita, K, Ikawa, T, Ito, T, Yamamoto, A, Saito, M, Nishida, Y, Satoh, H, Kimura, G, Watanabe, T, Ikawa, T and Kuroda, T (1998) Crustal structure and tectonics of the Hidaka Collision Zone, Hokkaido (Japan), revealed by Vibroseis seismic reflection and gravity surveys. Tectonophysics 290, 197210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bamba, T (1980) Quartz keratophyre including arfvedsonite-trachyte from the Tokoro Belt, Central Axial Zone of Hokkaido. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 86, 195202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bamba, T (1981) Troctolite and gabbro from the Tokoro Belt, central axial zone of Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology 76, 386–94.Google Scholar
Bamba, T (1984) The Tokoro Belt, a tectonic unit of the central axial zone of Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 4 21, 2175.Google Scholar
Bazhenov, M and Burtman, VS (1994) Upper Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from Shikotan Island, Kuril arc: implications for plate kinematics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 122, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C-Y, Frey, FA, Garcia, MO, Dalrymple, GB and Hart, SR (1991) The tholeiite to alkalic basalt transition at Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaii. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 106, 183200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, C-Y, Frey, FA and Garcia, MO (1990) Evolution of alkalic lavas at Haleakala Volcano, east Maui, Hawaii. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 105, 197218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cloos, M (1993) Lithospheric buoyancy and collisional orogenesis – subduction of oceanic plateaus, continental margins, island arcs, spreading ridges, and seamounts. Geological Society of America Bulletin 105, 715–37.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Grave, J, Zhimulev, FI, Glorie, S, Kuznetsov, GV, Evans, N, Vanhaecke, F and Mcinnes, B (2016) Late Palaeogene emplacement and late Neogene–Quaternary exhumation of the Kuril island-arc root (Kunashir island) constrained by multi-method thermochronometry. Geoscience Frontiers 7, 211–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devey, CW, Lackschewitz, KS, Mertz, DF, Bourdon, B, Cheminee, J-L, Dubois, J, Guivel, C, Hekinian, R and Stoffers, P (2003) Giving birth to hotspot volcanoes: distribution and composition of young seamounts from the seafloor near Tahiti and Pitcairn islands. Geology 31, 395–8.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilek, Y (2003) Ophiolites, plumes and orogeny. In Ophiolites in Earth History (eds Dilek, Y and Robinson, PT), pp. 919. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 218.Google Scholar
Domeier, M, Shephard, GE, Jakob, J, Gaina, C, Doubrovine, PV and Torsvik, TH (2017) Intraoceanic subduction spanned the Pacific in the Late Cretaceous–Paleocene. Science Advances 3, eaao2303. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao.2303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dominguez, S, Malavieille, J and Lallemand, SE (2000) Deformation of accretionary wedges in response to seamount subduction: insights from sandbox experiments. Tectonics 19, 182–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellam, RM (1992) Lithospheric thickness as a control on basalt geochemistry. Geology 20, 153156.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, FA, Garcia, MO and Roden, MF (1994) Geochemical characteristics of Koolau Volcano: implications of intershield geochemical differences among Hawaiian volcanoes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 1441–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, FA, Garcia, MO, Wise, WS, Kennedy, A, Gurriet, P and Albarede, F (1991) The evolution of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 347–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furnes, H, De Wit, M and Dilek, Y (2014) Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation. Geoscience Frontiers 5, 571603. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2014.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hashimoto, W (1960) Stromatoporoids from the Ainonai Limestone, Kitami Province, Hokkaido. Science Reports of the Tokyo Kyoiku Daigaku, Section C: Geology, Mineralogy and Geography 7, 193203.Google Scholar
Ichiyama, Y, Ishiwatari, A and Koizumi, K (2008) Petrogenesis of greenstones from the Mino-Tamba belt, SW Japan: evidence for an accreted Permian oceanic plateau. Lithos 100, 127–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikeda, Y and Goto, M (2018) Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene forearc magmatism and subduction initiation in the Paleo-Kuril arc-trench system, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Geodynamics 122, 4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwata, K and Kato, Y (1986) Upper Cretaceous Radiolarians of the Yubetsu Group and the Hidaka Supergroup in the northern Hidaka Belt. Osaka Micropaleontologists, Special Volume 7, 7586.Google Scholar
Iwata, K and Tajika, J (1986) Late Cretaceous Radiolarians of the Yubetsu Group, Tokoro Belt, Northeast Hokkaido. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4 21, 619–44.Google Scholar
Iwata, K and Tajika, J (1992) Early Paleogene radiolarians from green and red mudstones in the Yubetsu group & reconsideration of the age of their sedimentation. Report of the Geological Survey of Hokkaido 63, 2331.Google Scholar
Iwata, K, Watabe, M, Nakamura, K and Uozumi, S (1983) Occurrence of Jurassic and Cretaceous radiolarians from the pre-Tertiary systems around Lake Saroma, northeast Hokkaido. Journal of the Association for the Geological Collaboration in Japan 37, 225–8.Google Scholar
Kanamatsu, T, Nanayama, F, Iwata, K and Fujiwara, T (1992) Pre-tertiary systems on the western side of the Abashiri Tectonic Line in the Shiranuka area, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 98, 1113–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawamura, K, Ogawa, Y, Anma, R, Yokoyama, S, Kawakami, S, Dilek, Y, Moores, GF, Hirano, S, Yamaguchi, A, Sasaki, T, YK05-08 Leg 2 and YK06-02 Shipboard Scientific Parties (2009) Structural architecture and active deformation of the Nankai accretionary prism, Japan: submersible survey results from the Tenryu submarine canyon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1629–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiminami, K, Kito, N and Tajika, J (1985a) Mesozoic Group in Hokkaido – stratigraphy and age, and their significance. Earth Science (‘Chikyu Kagaku’) 39, 117.Google Scholar
Kiminami, K, Kontani, T and Miyashita, S (1985b) Lower Cretaceous strata covering the abyssal tholeiite (the Hidaka Western Greenstone Belt) in the Chiroro area, central Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 91, 2742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiminami, K and Kontani, Y (1983) Mesozoic arc-trench systems in Hokkaido. In Accretion Tectonics in the Circum-Pacific Regions (eds Hashimoto, M and Uyeda, S), pp. 107–22. Tokyo: Terrapub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiminami, K, Suizu, M and Kontani, Y (1983) Discovery and significance of Cretaceous radiolarians from the Mesozoic in the Tokoro Belt, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Association for the Geological Collaboration in Japan 37, 4852.Google Scholar
Kimura, G (1981) Abashiri Tectonic Line: with special reference to the tectonic significance of the southwestern margin of the Kurile Arc. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4 20, 95111.Google Scholar
Kimura, G, Hashimoto, Y, Yamaguchi, A, Kitamura, Y and Ujiie, K (2016) Cretaceous–Neogene accretionary units: Shimanto Belt. In The Geology of Japan (eds Moreno, T, Wallis, S, Kojima, T, and Gibbons, W), pp. 125–37. London: The Geological Society.Google Scholar
Kimura, G, Maruyama, S, Isozaki, Y and Terabayashi, M (1996) Well-preserved underplating structure of the jadeitized Franciscan complex, Pacheco Pass, California. Geology 24, 75–8.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimura, G, Sakakibara, M and Okamura, M (1994) Plumes in central Panthalassa? Deductions from accreted oceanic fragments in Japan. Tectonics 13, 905–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koizumi, K and Ishiwatari, A (2006) Oceanic plateau accretion inferred from Late Paleozoic greenstones in the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex, Southwest Japan. Island Arc, 15, 5883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopp, H, Flueh, ER, Papenberg, C and Klaeschen, D (2004) Seismic investigations of the O’Higgins Seamount Group and Juan Fernández Ridge: aseismic ridge emplacement and lithosphere hydration. Tectonics, 23, TC2009. doi: 10.1029/2003TC001590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kugimiya, Y and Takasu, A (2002) Geology of the western Iratsu mass within the tectonic melange zone in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, Besshi district, central Shikoku, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 108, 644–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kusunoki, K and Kimura, G (1998) Collision and extrusion at the Kuril-Japan arc junction. Tectonics, 17, 843–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leterrier, J, Maury, C, Thonon, P, Girard, D and Marchal, M (1982) Clinopyroxene composition as a method of identification of the magmatic affinities of paleo-volcanic series. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 59, 139–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, F, Yang, J, Dilek, Y, Xu, Z, Xu, X, Liang, F, Chen, S and Lian, D (2015) Geochronology and geochemistry of basaltic lavas in the Dongbo and Purang ophiolites of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone: plume-influenced continental margin-type oceanic lithosphere in southern Tibet. Gondwana Research 27, 701–18. doi: 10.1016/ Scholar
Machida, S, Hirano, N, Sumino, H, Hirata, T, Yoneda, S and Kato, Y (2015) Petit-spot geology reveals melts in upper-most asthenosphere dragged by lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 426, 267–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machida, S, Ishii, T, Kimura, JI, Awaji, S and Kato, Y (2008) Petrology and geochemistry of cross-chains in the Izu-Bonin back arc: three mantle components with contributions of hydrous liquids from a deeply subducted slab. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maruyama, S, Isozazki, Y, Kimura, G and Terabayashi, M (1997) Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic synthesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 6, 121–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitani, K, Fujiwara, T and Ishiyama, S (1960) Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan. Rikubetsu: Hokkaido Development Agency, 50 pp.Google Scholar
Mitani, K, Fujiwara, T and Ishiyama, S (1964) Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan. Kamiashoro: Hokkaido Development Agency, 64 pp.Google Scholar
Mitani, K, Osanai, H and Haahimoto, W (1958) Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan. Ashorobuto: Hokkaido Development Agency, 74 pp.Google Scholar
Morrell, KD (2016) Seamount, ridge, and transform subduction in southern Central America. Tectonics 35, 357–85. doi: 10.1002/2015TC003950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nanayama, F (1992a) Stratigraphy and facies of the Paleocene Nakanogawa Group in the southern part of central Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 98, 1041–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nanayama, F (1992b) Three petroprovinces identified in the Nakanogawa Group, Hidaka Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan, and their geotectonic significance. Memoirs of the Geological Society of Japan 38, 2742.Google Scholar
Nanayama, F, Kanamatsu, T and Fujiwara, Y (1993) Sedimentary petrology and paleotectonic analysis of the arc-arc junction: the Paleocene Nakanogawa Group in the Hidaka Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 105, 5369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naruse, H (2003) Cretaceous to Paleocene depositional history of North-Pacific subduction zone: reconstruction from the Nemuro Group, eastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. Cretaceous Research 24, 5571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogawa, Y, Mori, R, Tsunogae, T, Dilek, Y and Harris, R (2015) New interpretation of the Franciscan mélange at San Simeon coast, California: tectonic intrusion into an accretionary prism. International Geology Review 57, 824–42. doi: 10.1080/00206814.2014.968813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, J-O, Tsuru, T, Kaneda, Y and Kon, Y (1999) A subducting seamount beneath the Nankai accretionary prism off Shikoku, southwestern Japan. Geophysical Research Letters 26, 931–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, JA (2008) Geochemical fingerprinting of oceanic basalts with applications to ophiolite classification and the search for Archean oceanic crust. Lithos 100, 1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, JA and Peate, DW (1995) Tectonic implications of the composition of volcanic arc magmas. Annual Review of Earth & Planetary Sciences 23, 251–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petterson, MG, Neal, CR, Mahoney, JJ, Kroenke, LW, Saunders, AD, Babbs, TL, Duncan, RA, Tolia, D and McGrail, B (1997) Structure and deformation of north and central Malaita, Solomon Islands: tectonic implications for the Ontong Java Plateau–Solomon arc collision, and for the fate of oceanic plateaus. Tectonophysics 283, 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Research Group of the Tokoro Belt (1984) Petrographic constitution of the Nikoro Group and the significance of unconformity at the base of the Saroma Group, Tokoro Belt, Hokkaido. Earth Science; Chikyu Kagaku 38, 408–19.Google Scholar
Rhodes, JM and Vollinger, MJ (2004) Composition of basaltic lavas sampled by phase-2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: geochemical stratigraphy and magma types. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 5, 138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Safonova, I, Maruyama, S, Kojima, S, Komiya, T, Krivonogov, S and Koshida, K (2016) Recognizing OIB and Morb in accretionary complexes: a new approach based on ocean plate stratigraphy, petrology and geochemistry. Gondwana Research 33, 92114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakakibara, M (1991) Metamorphic petrology of the Northern Tokoro metabasites, Eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Petrology 32, 333–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakakibara, M, Isozaki, Y, Nanayama, F and Narui, E (1993) Radiolarian age of greenrock-chert-limestone sequence and its accretionary process of the Nikoro Group in the Tokoro belt, eastern Hokkaido, Japan. The Geological Society of Japan 99, 615–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sano, H and Kanmera, K (1991a) Collapse of ancient reef complex. What happened during collision of Akiyoshi reef complex? Geologic setting and age of Akiyoshi terrane rocks on western Akiyoshi-dai plateau. Journal of Geological Society of Japan 97, 113–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sano, H and Kanmera, K (1991b) Collapse of ancient oceanic reef complex. What happened during collision of Akiyoshi reef complex? Sequence of collisional collapse and generation of collapse products. Journal of Geological Society of Japan 97, 631–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarifakioglu, E, Dilek, Y and Sevin, M (2014) Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey. Solid Earth 5, 77108. doi: 10.5194/se-5-77-2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarifakioglu, E, Dilek, Y and Sevin, M (2017) New synthesis of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and the Ankara mélange in northern Anatolia based on new geochemical and geochronological constraints. In Tectonic Evolution, Collision, and Seismicity of Southwest Asia: In Honor of Manuel Berberian’s Forty-Five Years of Research Contributions (ed. Sorkhabi, R), pp. 613675. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 525.Google Scholar
Sun, S-S and McDonough, WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds Sanders, AD and Norry, MJ), pp. 313–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 42.Google Scholar
Suzuki, M and Asai, H (1963) Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan. Shotoshibetsu: Hokkaido Development Agency, 37 pp.Google Scholar
Tajika, J (1988) Stratigraphy and structure of the Upper Cretaceous Yubetsu Group, Tokoro Belt, eastern Hokkaido: an application of trench accretion model. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 94, 817–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tankut, A, Dilek, Y and Önen, P (1998) Petrology and geochemistry of the Neo-Tethyan volcanism as revealed in the Ankara mélange, Turkey. Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research, 85, 265–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tatsumi, Y, Shinjoe, H, Ishizuka, H, Sager, WW and Klaus, A (1998) Geochemical evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplume. Geology 26, 151–4.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terabayashi, M, Okamoto, K, Yamamoto, H, Kaneko, Y, Ota, T, Maruyama, S, Katayama, I, Komiya, T, Ishikawa, A, Anma, R, Ozawa, H, Windley, FB and Liou, JG (2005) Accretionary complex origin of the mafic-ultramafic bodies of the Sanbagawa belt, Central Shikoku, Japan. International Geology Review 47, 1058–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ueda, H (2016) Hokkaido. In The Geology of Japan (eds Moreno, T, Wallis, S, Kojima, T and Gibbons, W), pp. 201–21. London: The Geological Society.Google Scholar
Verma, SP, Rosales-Rivera, M, Díaz-González, L and Quiroz-Ruiz, A (2017) Improved composition of Hawaiian basalt BHVO-1 from the application of two new and three conventional recursive discordancy tests. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 26, 331–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wakita, K, Nakagawa, T, Tanaka, N and Oyama, N (2019) Phanerozoic accretionary history of Japan and the western Pacific margin. Geological Magazine.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watts, AB, Koppers, AAP and Robinson, DP (2016) Seamount subduction and earthquakes. Oceanography, 23, 166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, HB, Garcia, MO, Gerlach, DC and Romano, J (1992) Geochemistry of tholeiites from Lanai, Hawaii. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 112, 520–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, WM and Duncan, RA (1996) Geochemistry and geochronology of the Society Islands: new evidence for deep mantle recycling. In Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code (eds Basu, A and Hart, SR), pp. 183206. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.Google Scholar
Winchester, JA and Floyd, PA (1977) Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements. Chemical Geology 20, 325–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, DA (1980) The application of a Th-Hf-Ta diagram to problems of tectonomagmatic classification and to establishing the nature of crustal contamination of basaltic lavas of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 50, 1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodhead, JD (1996) Extreme Himu in an oceanic setting: the geochemistry of Mangaia Island (Polynesia), and temporal evolution of the Cook-Austral hotspot. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 72, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodhead, JD and Devey, CW (1993) Geochemistry of the Pitcairn seamounts, I: source character and temporal trends. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 116, 8199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamasaki, T and Nanayama, F (2017) Enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt-type geochemistry of basalts and gabbros from the Nikoro Group, Tokoro Belt, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 112, 311–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, Y-T (2013) An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous: constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific. Earth-Science Reviews 126, 96115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zharov, AE (2005) South Sakhalin tectonics and geodynamics: a model for the Cretaceous-Paleogene accretion of the East Asian continental margin. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences 7, 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar