Skip to main content

In situ U–Th–Pbtotal dating of polychronous monazite in the Koraput anorthosite pluton, Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt (India), and implications

  • D. SAIKIA (a1), P. NASIPURI (a1) (a2) and A. BHATTACHARYA (a3)

U–Th–Pbtotal age determinations in monazite in a noritic anorthosite at the margin of the Koraput anorthosite pluton constrain the time of emplacement and sub-solidus chemical modifications in the Grenvillian-age anorthosite pluton in the Eastern Ghats Province (EGP), India. The monazites hosted within dynamically recrystallized orthopyroxene and plagioclase grains are large (50–500 μm in diameter) and complexly zoned. Based on the textural–chemical heterogeneities, these monazites are classified into three groups. Group-I monazites exhibit a low-ThO2 core mantled by a high-ThO2 rim. By contrast, the group-II monazites exhibit high-ThO2 cores laced by ThO2-poor mantles, and outermost rims with still lower ThO2 contents. Skeletal group-III monazites at polygonized grain/phase boundaries exhibit patchy and concentric zones with decreasing ThO2 towards the margin. The U–Th–Pbtotal chemical ages obtained using electron probe microanalyses exhibit four age clusters. The oldest age population (mean 939 ± 4.5 Ma) obtained in cores in group-I, II and III monazites with patchy zones corresponds with the emplacement of the Koraput anorthosite, and this age population is consistent with 980–930 Ma emplacement ages reported in other EGP anorthosite massifs. Younger monazites mantling the cores in group-II monazites and in group-III monazites with mean ages of 877 ± 5 Ma and 749 ± 18 Ma possibly reflect episodic monazite growth by fluid-aided dissolution–precipitation culminating with the disintegration of Rodinia at ~750 Ma. The youngest age population (mean 574 ± 19 Ma) in the outermost monazite rims and monazite veins represents renewed monazite growth during the Pan African assembly of the Grenvillian-age EGP domain with the proto-Indian cratons.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence:
Hide All
Bhattacharya A., Das H. H., Bell E., Bhattacharya A., Chatterjee N., Saha L. & Dutt A. 2016. Restoration of Late Neoarchean–Early Cambrian tectonics in the Rengali orogen and its environs (eastern India): the Antarctic connection. Lithos 263, 190212.
Bhattacharya A., Raith M., Hoernes S. & Banerjee D. 1998. Geochemical evolution of the massif-type anorthosite complex at Bolangir in the Eastern Ghats Belt of India. Journal of Petrology 39, 1169–95.
Bhattacharya S., Sen S. K. & Acharyya A. 1994. The structural setting of the Chilka Lake granulite-migmatite-anorthosite suite with emphasis on the time relation of charnockites. Precambrian Research 66, 393409.
Biswal T. K., De Waele B. & Ahuja H. 2007. Timing and dynamics of the juxtaposition of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt against the Bhandara craton, India: a structural and zircon U–Pb SHRIMP study of the fold-thrust belt and associated nepheline syenite plutons. Tectonics 26, TC4006. doi: 10.1029/2006TC002005.
Black L. P., Harley S. L., Sun S. S. & McCulloch M. T. 1987. The Rayner Complex of East Antarctica: complex isotopic systematics with a Proterozoic mobile belt. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 5, 126.
Bose M. K. 1960. On garnet coronites from Koraput, Orissa. Geological Magazine 98, 409–16.
Bose M. K. 1979. On the Eastern Ghats Precambrian granulite belt and associated anorthosites. Indian Journal Earth Science 6, 200–19.
Bose S., Das K., Torimoto J., Arima M. & Dunkley D. J. 2016. Evolution of the Chilka Lake granulite complex, northern Eastern Ghats Belt, India: first evidence of ~ 780 Ma decompression of the deep crust and its implication on the India–Antarctica correlation. Lithos 263, 161–89.
Bose S., Dunkley D. J., Dasgupta S., Das K. & Arima M. 2011. India–Antarctica–Australia–Laurentia connection in the Paleoproterozoic–Mesoproterozoic revisited: evidence from new zircon U–Pb and monazite chemical age data from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India. Geological Society of America Bulletin 123, 2031–49.
Broska I., Petrík I. & Williams C. T. 2000. Coexisting monazite and allanite in peraluminous granitoids of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians. American Mineralogist 85, 2232.
Boynton W. V. 1984. Cosmochemistry of the rare earth elements: meteorite studies. In Rare Earth Element Geochemistry, Vol. 2 (ed. Henderson P.), pp. 63114. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Chatterjee N., Crowley J. L., Mukherjee A. & Das S. 2008. Geochronology of the 983-Ma Chilka Lake Anorthosite, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: implications for pre-Gondwana tectonics. The Journal of Geology 116, 105–18.
Chatterjee A., Das K., Bose S. & Hidaka H. 2017. Age-integrated tectonic evolution across the orogen-craton boundary: age zonation and shallow- to deep crustal participation during Late Cambrian cratonisation of Eastern Ghats Belts, India. Lithos, published online 4 August 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2017.07.020
Cherniak D. J., Watson E. B., Grove M. & Harrison T. M. 2004. Pb diffusion in monazite: a combined RBS/SIMS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, 829–40.
Chetty T. R. K. & Murthy D. S. N. 1994. Collisional tectonics in the late Precambrian Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt; mesoscopic to satellite-scale structural observations. Terra Nova 6, 7281.
Crowe W. A., Nash C. R., Harris L. B., Leeming P. M. & Rankin L. R. 2003. The geology of the Rengali Province: implications for the tectonic development of northern Orissa, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 697710.
Das K., Bose S., Karmakar S. & Chakraborty S. 2012. Petrotectonic framework of granulites from northern part of Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: compressional vis-à-vis transpressional tectonics. Journal of Earth System Science 121, 117.
Das S., Nasipuri P., Bhattacharya A. & Swaminathan S. 2008. The thrust-contact between the Eastern Ghats Belt and the adjoining Baster craton (Eastern India): evidence from mafic granulites and tectonic implications. Precambrian Research 162, 7085.
Dharma Rao C. V., Santosh M. & Zhang S.-H. 2014a. U–Pb zircon geochronology of ferrodiorites and quartz diorites from the Turkel Anorthosite Complex: a Neoarchaean convergent margin in eastern India. Geological Journal 50, 530–8.
Dharma Rao C. V., Santosh M. & Zhang S.-H. 2014b. Neoproterozoic massif type anorthosites and related magmatic suites from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India: implications for slab window magmatism at the terminal stage of collisional orogeny. Precambrian Research 240, 6078.
Dobmeier C. J., Lütke S., Hammerschmidt H. & Mezger K. 2006. Emplacement and deformation of the Vinukonda granite—implications for the geological evolution of peninsular India and for Rodinia reconstructions. Precambrian Research 146, 165–78.
Dobmeier C. J. & Raith M. M. 2003. Crustal architecture and evolution of the Eastern Ghats Belt and adjacent regions of India. In Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup (eds Yoshida M., Windley B. E. & Dasgupta S.), pp. 145–68. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 206.
Dobmeier C. J. & Simmat R. 2002. Post-Grenvillean transpression in the Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt—implications for the geological evolution of peninsular India. Precambrian Research 113, 243–68.
Fitzsimons I. C. W., Kinny P. D. & Harley S. L. 1997. Two stages of zircon and monazite growth in anatectic leucogneiss: SHRIMP constraints on the duration and intensity of Pan-African metamorphism in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Terra Nova 9, 4751.
Gardés E., Jaoul O., Montel J. M., Seydoux-Guillame A. M. & Wirth R. 2006. Pb diffusion in monazite: an experimental study of Pb2+ + Th4+↔2Nd3+ inter diffusion. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 2325–36.
Gupta S., Bhattacharya A., Raith M. & Nanda J. K. 2000. Pressure-temperature deformation history across a vestigial craton-mobile belt boundary: the western margin of Eastern Ghats Belt at Deobhog, India. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 18, 683–97.
Halpin J. A., Gerakiteys C. L., Clarke G. L., Belusova E. A. & Griffin W. L. 2005. In-situ U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotope analyses of the Rayner complex, East Antarctica. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 148, 689706.
Harley S. L., Fitzsimons I. C. W. & Zhao Y. 2013. Antarctica and supercontinent evolution: historical perspectives, recent advances and unresolved issues. In Antarctica and Supercontinent Evolution (eds Harley S. L., Fitzsimons I. C. W. & Zhao Y.), pp. 134. Geological Society of London Special Publication no. 383.
Harlov D. E. & Hetherington C. J. 2010. Partial high-grade alteration of monazite using alkali-bearing fluids: experiment and nature. American Mineralogist 95, 1105–8.
Hetherington C. J., Harlov D. E. & Budzyń B. 2010. Experimental metasomatism of monazite and xenotime: mineral stability, REE mobility and fluid composition. Mineralogy and Petrology 99, 165–84.
Hippe K., Möller A., Quadt A. V., Peytcheva I. & Hammerschmidt K. 2015. Zircon geochronology of the Koraput alkaline complex: insights from combined geochemical and U–Pb–Hf isotope analyses, and implications for the timing of alkaline magmatism in the Eastern Ghats Belt, India. Gondwana Research 34, 205–20.
Hoshino M., Watanabe Y. & Ishihara S. 2012. Crystal chemistry of monazite from the granitic rocks of Japan: petrographic implications. The Canadian Mineralogist 50, 1331–46.
Kato T., Suzuki K. & Adachi M. 1999. Computer program for the CHIME age calculation. Journal of Earth and Planetary Sciences 46, 4956.
Korhonen F. J., Clark C., Brown M., Bhattacharya S. & Taylor R. 2013. How long-lived is ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism? Constraints from zircon and monazite geochronology in the Eastern Ghats orogenic belt, India. Precambrian Research 234, 322–50.
Korhonen F. J., Saw A. K., Clark C., Brown M. & Bhattacharya S. 2011. New constraints on UHT metamorphism in the Eastern Ghats Province through the application of phase equilibria modelling and in situ geochronology. Gondwana Research 20, 764–81.
Krause O., Dobmier C., Raith M. M. & Mezger K. 2001. Age of emplacement of massif-type anorthosites in the Eastern Ghats Belt, India: constraints from U–Pb zircon dating and structural studies. Precambrian Research 109, 2538.
Lackey J. S., Hinke H. J. & Valley J. W. 2002. Tracking contamination in felsic magma chambers with δ18O of magmatic garnet and zircon. Extended Abstracts, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 (Suppl. 1), 428.
Leelanandam C. & Reddy N. M. 1988. Precambrian anorthosites from Peninsular India – problems & perspectives. Indian Journal of Geology 60, 111–36.
Li Z. X., Bogdanova S. V., Collins A. S., Davidson A., Waele B. D., Ernst R. E., Fitzsimons I. C. W., Fuck R. A., Gladkochub D. P., Jacobs J., Karlstrom K. E., Lu S., Natapov L. M., Pease V., Pisarevsky S. A., Thrane K. & Vernikovsky V. 2008. Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: a synthesis. Precambrian Research 160, 179210.
Linthout K. 2007. Tripartite division of the system 2REE(PO)4-CaTh(PO4)2-2ThSiO4 discreditation of brabantite, and recognition of cheralite as the name for members dominated by CaTh (PO4)2 . Canadian Mineralogist 45, 503–8.
Ludwig K. R. 2012. Isoplot 3.75: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley, California: Berkeley Chronological Center, Special Publication 5.
Mahapatro S. N., Nanda J. K. & Tripathy A. K. 2010. The Jugsaipatna Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. Magmatic lineage and petrogenetic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Science 38, 147–61.
Mahapatro S. N., Tripathy A. K., Nanda J. K. & Rath S. C. 2013. Petrology of the Udayagiri Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 82, 319–29.
Maji A., Bhattacharya A. & Raith M. 1997. The Turkel anorthosite complex revisited. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science 106, 313–25.
Maji A. K. & Sarkar S. S. 2004. Quantitative genetic modelling of the Turkel anorthosite, Eastern Ghats Mobile Belts, India. Journal of Asian Earth Science 24, 199211.
Majka J., Be'eri-Shlevin Y., Gee D. G., Ladenberger A., Claesson S., Konečný P. & Klonowska I. 2012. Multiple monazite growth in the Åreskutan migmatite: evidence for a polymetamorphic Late Ordovician to Late Silurian evolution in the Seve Nappe Complex of west-central Jämtland, Sweden. Journal of Geosciences 57, 1323.
McDonough W. F. & Sun S.-S. 1995. The composition of the Earth. Chemical Geology 120, 223–53.
Mezger K. & Cosca M. A. 1999. The thermal history of the Eastern Ghats belt (India), as revealed by U–Pb and 40Ar–39Ar dating of metamorphic and magmatic minerals: implications for the SWEAT correlation. Precambrian Research 94, 251–71.
Montel J. M., Foret S., Veschambre M., Nicollet C. & Provost A. 1996. Electron microprobe dating of monazite. Chemical Geology 131, 3753.
Mukherjee A. B., Bhattacharya A. & Chakravorty S. C. 1986. Convergent phase equilibria at the anorthosite-granulite interface near Bolangir, Orissa, India and thermal evolution of a part of the Indian shield. Precambrian Research 3, 69104.
Mukherjee A. B., Jana P. & Das S. 1999. The Banpur-Balugaon and Bolangir Anorthosite Diapirs of the Eastern Ghats, India: implications for the Massif Anorthosite Problem. International Geology Review 4, 206–42.
Nanda J. K. & Panda P. K. 1999. Anorthosite–leuconorite–norite complex from Jugasaipatna, Kalahandi district, Eastern Ghats Belt of Orissa sector. Gondwana Research Group Memoir 5, 89104.
Nasipuri P. & Bhattacharya A. 2007. Melt-assisted interior to margin switch from dislocation to diffusion creep in coarse grained plagioclase: evidence from a deformed anorthosite pluton. Journal of Structural Geology 29, 1327–38.
Nasipuri P., Bhattacharya A. & Satyanarayanan M. 2011. Localized pluton deformation and linked focused flow of low-volume fraction residual melt in deforming plagioclase cumulates. Geological Society of America Bulletin 123, 669–80.
Nasipuri P. & Bhadra S. 2013. Structural framework for the emplacement of the Bolangir anorthosite massif in the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt, India: implications for post-Rodinia pre-Gondwana tectonics. Mineralogy and Petrology 107, 861–80.
Parrish R. R. 1990. U–Pb dating of monazite and its application to geological problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 27, 1431–50.
Paul D. K., Barman T. R., McNaughton N. J., Fletcher I. R., Potts P. J., Ramakrishnan M. & Augustine A. F. 1990. Archean–Proterozoic evolution of Indian charnockites: isotopic and geochemical evidences from granulites of the Eastern Ghats belt. Journal of Geology 98, 253326.
Prabhakar N. 2013. Resolving poly-metamorphic Paleoarchean ages by chemical dating of monazites using multi-spectrometer U, Th and Pb analyses and subcounting methodology. Chemical Geology 347, 255–70.
Prasad S., Bhattacharya A., Raith M. M. & Bhadra S. 2005. The origin of orthopyroxene/biotite + plagioclase coronas from the Bolangir anorthosite complex (India), and implications for reconstructing P-T paths. American Mineralogist 90, 291303.
Raith M., Bhattacharya A. & Hoernes D. 1997. A HFSE and REE enriched ferrodiorite suite from the Bolangir Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences – Earth and Planetary Sciences 106, 299311.
Raith M. M., Mahapatro S. N., Upadhyay D., Berndt J., Mezger K. & Nanda J. K. 2014. Age and PT evolution of the Neoproterozoic Turkel Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Province, India. Precambrian Research 254, 87113.
Ramakrishnan M., Nanda J. K. & Augustine P. F. 1998. Geological evolution of the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt. Geological Survey of India Special Publication 44, 121.
Rasmussen B., Fletcher I. R. & Sheppard S. 2005. Isotopic dating of the migration of a low grade metamorphic front during orogenesis. Geology 33, 773–6.
Rasmussen B. & Muhling J. R. 2007. Monazite begets monazite: evidence for dissolution of detrital monazite and reprecipitation of syntectonic monazite during low-grade regional metamorphism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 154, 675–89.
Rekha S., Bhattacharya A. & Viswanath T. A. 2013. Microporosity linked fluid focusing and monazite instability in greenschist facies para-conglomerates, western India. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 105, 187205.
Rickers K., Mezger K. & Raith M. M. 2001. Evolution of the continental crust in the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Belt, India and new constraints for Rodinia reconstruction: implications from Sm–Nd, Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb isotopes. Precambrian Research 112, 183210.
Sarkar A., Bhanumathi L. & Balasubrahmanyan M. N. 1981. Petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Chilka Lake igneous complex, Orissa State, India. Lithos 14, 93111.
Schandl E. S. & Gorton M. P. 2004. A textural and geochemical guide to the identification of hydrothermal monazite; criteria for selection of samples for dating epigenetic hydrothermal ore deposits. Economic Geology 99, 1027–35.
Schärer U., de Parseval P., Polve M. & de Saint Blanquat M. 1999. Formation of the Trimouns talc–chlorite deposits (Pyrenees) from persistent hydrothermal activity between 112 Ma and 97 Ma. Terra Nova 11, 30–7.
Sengupta P., Dasgupta S., Bhattacharya P. K., Fukuoka M., Chakraborti S. & Bhowmik S. 1990. Petrotectonic imprints in the sapphirine granulites from Anantagiri, Eastern Ghats mobile belt, India. Journal of Petrology 31, 971–96.
Shaw R. K., Arima M., Kagami H., Fanning C. M., Shiraishi K. & Motoyoshi Y. 1997. Proterozoic events in the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt, India: evidence from Rb–Sr, Sm–Nd systematics and SHRIMP dating. Journal of Geology 105, 645–56.
Spear F. S., Pyle J. M. & Cherniak D. 2009. Limitations of chemical dating of monazite. Chemical Geology 266, 218–30.
Steiger R. H. & Jäger E. 1977. Subcommission on geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 36, 359–62.
Stepanov A., Herman J., Rubatto D. & Rapp R. P. 2012. Experimental study of monazite/melt partitioning with implications for the REE, Th and U geochemistry of crustal rocks. Chemical Geology 300–301, 200–20.
Suzuki K. & Adachi M. 1991a. Precambrian provenance and Silurian metamorphism of the Tsubonosawa paragneiss in the South Kitakami terrane, Northeast Japan, revealed by the chemical Th–U–total Pb isochron ages of monazite, zircon and xenotime. Geochemical Journal 25, 357–76.
Suzuki K. & Adachi M. 1991b. The chemical Th–U–total Pb isochron ages of zircon and monazite from the gray granite of the Hida Terrane, Japan. Journal of Earth and Planetary Science 38, 1138.
Suzuki K. & Kato T. 2008. CHIME dating of monazite, xenotime, zircon and polycrase: protocol, pitfalls and chemical criterion of possibly discordant age data. Gondwana Research 14, 569–86.
Tak M. W. 1971. Some observations on the petro-mineralogical and chemical studies of the anorthositic rocks of the Bolangir-Patna district, Orissa. Indian Minerals 26, 168.
Tak M. W., Mitra D. & Chatterjee P. K. 1966. A note on the occurrence of anorthosite in the Bolangir-Patna District, Orissa. Indian Minerals 20, 339–42.
Torsvik T. H. 2003. The Rodinia jigsaw puzzle. Science 300, 1379–81.
Townsend K. J., Miller C. F., D'Andrea J. L., Ayers J. C., Harrison T. M. & Coath C. D. 2000. Low temperature replacement of monazite in the Ireteba granite, Southern Nevada: geochronological implications. Chemical Geology 172, 95112.
Veevers J. J. 2007. Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650–500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: a review. Earth Science Reviews 83, 147.
Veevers J. J. & Saeed A. 2009. Permian-Jurassic Mahanadi and Pranhitae-Godavari Rifts of Gondwana India: provenance from regional paleoslope and U–Pb/Hf analysis of detrital zircons. Gondwana Research 16, 633–54.
Watson E. B. & Harrison M. 1983. Zircon saturation revisited: temperature and composition effects in a variety of crustal magma types. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 64, 295304.
Williams M. L., Jercinovic M. J., Goncalves P. & Mahan K. 2006. Format and philosophy for collecting, compiling, and reporting microprobe monazite ages. Chemical Geology 225, 115.
Williams M. L., Jercinovic M. J. & Hetherington C. J. 2007. Microprobe monazite geochronology: understanding geologic processes by integrating composition and chronology. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35, 137–75.
Williams M. L., Jercinovic M. J. & Terry M. P. 1999. Age mapping and dating of monazite on the electron microprobe: deconvoluting multistage tectonic histories. Geology 27, 1023–6.
Xing L., Trail D. & Watson E. B. 2009. Monazite/melt partition coefficients for U, Th: preliminary results from experiments. American Geophysical Union (Fall Meeting abstract #V51A-1666).
Xing L., Trail D. & Watson E. B. 2013. Th and U partitioning between monazite and felsic melt. Chemical Geology 358, 4653.
Zhu X. K. & O'Nions R. K. 1999 a. Zonation of monazite in metamorphic rocks and its implications for high temperature thermochronology: a case study from the Lewisian terrain. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 171, 209–20.
Zhu X. K. & O'Nions R. K. 1999 b. Monazite chemical composition; some implications for monazite geochronology. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 137, 351–63.
Zhu X. K., O'Nions R. K., Belshaw N. S. & Gibb A. J. 1997. Significance of in situ SIMS chronometry of zoned monazite from the Lewisian Granites, northwest Scotland. Chemical Geology 135, 3553.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Saikia et al supplementary material
Saikia et al supplementary material 1

 Word (376 KB)
376 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 30 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 103 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 30th October 2017 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.