Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A new species of the side-necked turtle Foxemys (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary and the historical biogeography of the Bothremydini

  • MÁRTON RABI (a1), HAIYAN TONG (a2) and GÁBOR BOTFALVAI (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The continental deposits of the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Csehbánya Formation of the Bakony Mountains in Hungary yielded abundant remains of a bothremydid side-necked turtle, which are attributed to a new species of the genus Foxemys, Foxemys trabanti. F. trabanti shows strong affinities with the European monophyletic group Foxemydina owing to the absence of pits in the upper and lower triturating surfaces, the exclusion of the jugal from the triturating surface, the separation of the Eustachian tube and the stapes by a narrow fissure, the presence of deep and narrow fossa pterygoidei, the partially closed foramen jugulare posterius and the pentagonal shape of the basisphenoid in ventral view. Among the Foxemydina the bothremydid from Iharkút is more closely related to F. mechinorum than to Polysternon provinciale from the Early Campanian of France, mainly because of the position of the occipital condyle relative to the mandibular condyles of the quadrate. The new remains represent the only record of the Foxemydina outside of Western Europe and provide the earliest known occurrence of this endemic, freshwater group in the former Mediterranean Basin. The historical biogeography of the tribe Bothremydini is investigated and a hypothesis of migration from Africa to North America via the high-latitude Thulean route is put forward.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: iszkenderun@gmail.com
References
Hide All
Antunes M. T. & Broin F. de 1988. Le Crétacé terminal de Beira Litoral, Portugal: remarques stratigraphiques et écologiques, étude complémentaire de Rosasia soutoi (Chelonii, Bothremydidae). Ciências da Terra 9, 153200.
Baur G. 1891. Notes on some little known American fossil tortoises. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 43, 411–30.
Brinkman D. & Tarduno J. A. 2005. A Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Coniacian) high latitude turtle assemblage from the Canadian Arctic. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42, 2073–80.
Broin F. de. 1988. Les tortues et le Gondwana. Examen des rapports entre le fractionnement du Gondwana au Crétacé et la dispersion géographique des tortues pleurodires à partir du Crétacé. Studia Salmanticensia, Studia Palaeocheloniologica 2 (5), 103–42.
Carrington da Costa J. 1940. Um novo quelónio fossil. Communicações dos Serviços Geológicos de Portugal 21, 107–25.
Cope E. D. 1864. On the limits and relations of the Raniformes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16, 181–3.
Cope E. D. 1868. On the origin of genera. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 20, 242300.
Gaffney E. S., Hooks G. E. III., & Schneider V. P. 2009. New material of North American side-neck turtles (Pleurodira: Bothremydidae). American Museum Novitates 3655, 126.
Gaffney E. S. & Meylan P. A. 1992. The Transylvanian turtle, Kallokibotion, a primitive cryptodire of Cretaceous age. American Museum Novitates 3040, 137.
Gaffney E. S., Tong H. & Meylan P. A. 2006. Evolution of the side-necked turtles: the families Bothremydidae, Euraxemydidae, and Araripemydidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 300, 1698.
Gaffney E. S. & Zangerl R. 1968. A revison of the chelonian genus Bothremys (Pleurodira: Pelomedusidae). Fieldiana: Geology 16, 193239.
Haas G. 1978 a. A Cretaceous pleurodire turtle from the surroundings of Jerusalem. Israel Journal of Zoology 27, 2033.
Haas G. 1978 b. A new turtle of the genus Podocnemis from the lower Cenomanian of ‘Ein Yabrud. Israel Journal of Zoology 27, 169–75.
Hirayama R., Brinkman D. B & Danilov I. 2000. Distribution and biogeography of non-marine Cretaceous turtles. Russian Journal of Herpetology 7 (3), 181–98.
Knauer J. & Siegl-Farkas Á. 1992. Palynostratigraphic position of the Senonian beds overlaying the Upper Cretaceous bauxit formations of the Bakony Mts. In Annual Report of the Hungarian Geological Institute of 1990, 463–71.
Lapparent de Broin F. 2000. African chelonians from the Jurassic to the present: phases of development and preliminary catalogue of the fossil record. Palaeontologia Africana 36, 4382.
Lapparent de Broin F. 2001. The European turtle fauna from the Triassic to the Present. Dumerilia 4 (3), 155216.
Lapparent de Broin F. & Murelaga X. 1996. Une nouvelle faune de chéloniens dans le Crétacé Supérieur européen. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, serie IIa 323, 729–35.
Lapparent de Broin F. & Murelaga X. 1999. Turtles from Upper Cretaceous of Lano (Iberian Peninsula). Estudios del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava 14 (1), 135212.
Lapparent de Broin F. & Werner C. 1998. New Late Cretaceous turtles from the Western Desert, Egypt. Annales de Paleontologie 84 (2), 131214.
Larson D. W. & Brinkman D. B. 2009. New specimens of family Solemydidae (Testudines: Pancryptodira) from Canada. Gaffney Turtle Symposium, Abstract Volume (ed. Braman D. R.), pp. 98–9. Drumheller: Royal Tyrell Museum.
Laurent Y., Tong H. & Claude J. 2002. New side-necked turtle (Pleurodira: Bothremydidae) from the Upper Maastrichtian of the Petites-Pyrénées (Haute-Garonne, France). Cretaceous Research 23, 465–71.
Leidy J. 1865. Memoir on the extinct reptiles of the Cretaceous formations of the United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 14 (6), 1135.
Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae, 10th ed., volume 1. Stockholm, 824 pp.
Makádi L., Botfalvai G. & Ősi A. 2006. Late Cretaceous continental vertebrate fauna from the Bakony Mts. I: fishes, amphibians, turtles, lizards. Földtani Közlöny 136 (4), 487502. (in Hungarian)
Martin J. E., Case J. A., Jagt J. W. M., Schulp A. S. & Mulder E. W. A. 2005. A new European marsupial indicates a Late Cretaceous high-latitude Transatlantic dispersal route. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 12, 495511.
Matheron P. 1869. Notice sur les reptiles fossiles des dé pots fluvio-lacustres crétacés du bassin à lignite de Fuveau. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences, Belle-Lettres et Arts de Marseille, 1–39.
Milner A. R. 2004. The turtles of the Purbeck Limestone Group of Dorset, Southern England. Palaeontology 47, 1441–67.
Nopcsa F. 1931. Sur des nouveaux restes de tortues du Danien du Midi de la France. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, serie 5, 1 (3–4), 223–36.
Ősi A. & Mindszenty A. 2009. Iharkút, Dinosaur-bearing alluvial complex of the Csehbánya Formation. In Cretaceous Sediments of the Transdanubian Range. Field guide of the geological excursion organized by the Sedimentological Subcommission of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Geological Society (ed Babinszky E.), pp. 5163. Budapest.
Ősi A. & Rabi M. 2006. The Late Cretaceous continental vertebrate fauna from the Bakony Mountains II: crocodiles, dinosaurs (Theropoda, Aves, Ornithischia), pterosaurs. Földtani Közlöny, 136 (4), 503–26 (in Hungarian).
Parrish J. M., Parrish J. T., Hutchison J. H. & Spicer R. A. 1987. Late Cretaceous vertebrate fossils from the North Slope of Alaska and implications for dinosaur ecology. Palaios 2, 377–89.
Sanmartin I., Enghoff H. & Ronquist F. 2001. Patterns of animal dispersal, vicariance, and diversification in the Holarctic. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73, 345–90.
Swofford D. L. 2001. PAUP*, phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 4.0b10. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.
Szalai E. 2005. Paleomagnetic Studies in Iharkút. Manuscript, Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Environmental Geology (in Hungarian).
Szentesi Z. & Venczel M. 2009. An advanced anuran from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of Hungary. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 256 (3), 291302.
Tarduno J. A., Brinkman D., Renne P. R., Cottrell R. D., Scher H. & Castillo P. 1998. Evidence for extreme climatic warmth from Late Cretaceous arctic vertebrates. Science 282, 2241–4.
Tong H., & Gaffney E. S. 2000. Description of the skull of Polysternon provinciale (Matheron, 1869), a side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Villeveyrac, France. Oryctos 3, 918.
Tong H., Gaffney E. S. & Buffetaut E. 1998. Foxemys, a new side-necked turtle (Bothremydidae: Pelomedusoides) from the Late Cretaceous of France. American Museum Novitates 3251, 119.
Tuba Gy., Kiss P., Pósfai M. & Mindszenty A. 2006. Preliminary data on the diagenesis of Cretaceous dinosaur bones from the Bakony Mts., Hungary. Földtani Közlöny 136 (1), 124. (in Hungarian).
Vandermark D., Tarduno J. A., Brinkman D. B., Cottrell R. D. & Mason S. 2009. New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic. Geology 37, 183–6.
Vremir M. & Codrea V. 2009. Late Cretaceous turtle diversity in Transylvanian and Hateg basins (Romania). In 7th International Symposium of Paleontology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Abstract Volume, pp. 122–4.
Zalmout I. S., Mustafa H. A. & Wilson J. A. 2005. Karkaemys arabicus, a new side-necked turtle (Pleurodira, Bothremydidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Wadi Umm Ghudran Formation of Karak, Jordan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology of the University of Michigan 31 (6), 155–77.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 12 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 144 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.