Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Petrography and geochemistry of the Lower Silurian sandstones from the Angzanggou Formation in the North Qilian Belt, China: implications for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting

  • Qian Hou (a1) (a2), Chuanlong Mou (a1) (a2), Zuozhen Han (a1), Qiyu Wang (a1) (a2), Zhiyuan Tan (a3) and Xiangying Ge (a2)...

Abstract

The North Qilian Orogenic Belt is on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. It is connected with the Alxa Block in the north and the Tethyan orogenic assemblage in the south. The Lower Silurian Angzanggou Formation, deposited in the northern area of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, is the most important for revealing the architecture and orogenic processes of the North Qilian Belt. Provenance analysis of the Angzanggou Formation can reveal not only the tectonic evolution of the central orogenic belt of China but also Palaeozoic Asia plate reconstructions. Petrographic analysis indicated that the compositional and textural maturity of the sandstones was low. The detrital composition of the Angzanggou Formation samples consists of quartz (8–14 %), feldspar (6–29 %) and lithic fragments (56–86 %). The sandstones could be classified as litharenites or feldspathic litharenites. The detrital modal composition suggests that these sandstones were probably deposited in a fore-arc basin. The element ratios and some discrimination diagrams based on geochemistry indicate that felsic and intermediate rocks were the main source rocks. The SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, the index of chemical variability and the Th/Sc versus Zr/Sc discrimination diagram suggest that the compositional maturity and degree of recycling were moderate to low. The index of alteration (CIA) and the A–CN–K diagram indicate the intensity of weathering was moderate. The discrimination diagrams based on major and trace elements and petrographic discrimination diagrams imply that the Angzanggou Formation rocks were derived from a continental island arc, and a sedimentary cover probably overlaid the volcanic arc. Therefore, we infer that during Early Silurian time the North Qilian Belt sediments accumulated in a fore-arc basin.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Chuanlong Mou, Email: chuanlongmu@126.com

References

Hide All
Absar, N and Sreenivas, B (2015) Petrology and geochemistry of greywackes of the ~1.6 Ga Middle Aravalli Supergroup, northwest India: evidence for active margin processes. International Geology Review 57, 134–58.
Ali, S, Stattegger, K, Garbe-Schongerg, D, Frank, M, Kraft, S and Kuhnt, W (2014) The provenance of Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments in the Tarfaya basin, SW Morocco: evidence from trace element geochemistry and radiogenic Nd–Sr isotopes. Journal of African Earth Sciences 90, 6476.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS (2015) Evaluation of two multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams from beach and deep sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico and their application to Precambrian clastic sedimentary rocks. International Geology Review 57, 1446–61.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS, Lee, YI, Kasper-Zubillaga, JJ, Carranza-Edwards, A, Garcia, D, Eby, N, Balaram, V and Cruz-Ortiz, NL (2012) Geochemistry of beach sands along the Western Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: implication for provenance. Chemie der Erde 72, 345–62.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS, Lee, YI, Verma, SP and Ramasamy, S (2004) Geochemistry of sandstones from the upper Miocene Kudankulam formation, Southern Indian: implications for provenance, weathering, and tectonic setting. Journal of Sedimentary Research 74, 285–97.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS and Machain-Castillo, ML (2016) Mineralogy, geochemistry, and radiocarbon ages of deep sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 71, 182200.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS, Nagarajan, R, Lee, YI and Kasper-Zubillaga, JJ (2014) Geochemistry of sands along the San Nicolas and San Carlos beaches, Gulf of California, Mexico: implication for provenance. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 23, 533–58.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS, Nagarajan, R, Madhavaraju, J, Rosalez-Hoz, L, Lee, YI, Balaram, V, Cruz-Martinez, A and Avila-Ramirez, G (2013) Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango region, Hidalgo, Eastern Mexico: implications of source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 345, 185202.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS, Ramos-Vázquez, MA, Zavala-León, AC and Montiel-García, PC (2018) Provenance discrimination between Atasta and Alvarado beach sands, western Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: constraints from detrital zircon chemistry and U–Pb geochronology. Geological Journal 53, 2824–48.
Armstrong-Altrin, JS and Verma, SP (2005) Critical evaluation of six tectonic setting discrimination diagrams using geochemical data of Neogene sediments from known tectonic setting. Sedimentary Geology 177, 115–29.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.02.004
Bhatia, MR (1983) Plate tectonics and geochemical composition of sandstones. The Journal of Geology 91, 611–27.
Bhatia, MR (1985) Rare earth element geochemistry of Australian Paleozoic graywackes and mud rocks: provenance and tectonic control. Sedimentary Geology 45, 97113.
Bhatia, MR and Crook, KAW (1986) Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 181–93.
Bock, B, McLennan, SM and Hanson, GN (1998) Geochemistry and provenance of the middle Ordovician Austin Glen Member (Normanskill Formation) and the Taconian Orogeny in New England. Sedimentology 45, 635–55.
Chen, YJ, Pei, XZ, Li, RB and Li, ZV (2014) Geochemical characteristics and tectonic significance of meta-sedimentary rocks from Naij Tal Group, eastern section of East Kunlun. Geoscience 28, 489500.
Cowgill, E, Yin, A, Harrison, TM and Wang, XF (2003) Reconstruction of the Altyn Tagh fault based on U–Pb geochronology: the role of backthrusts, mantle sutures, and heterogeneous crustal strength in forming the Tibetan plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 2346. doi: 10.1029/2002JB002080.
Cox, R, Lowe, DR and Cullers, RL (1995) The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59, 2919–40.
Cullers, RL and Podkovyrov, VN (2000) Geochemistry of the Mesoproterozoic Lakhanda shale in southeastern Yakutia, Russia: implications for mineralogical and provenance control, and recycling. Precambrian Research 104, 7793.
Dickinson, WR (1985) Interpreting provenance relationships from detrital modes of sandstones. In Provenance of Arenites (ed. Zuffa, GG), pp. 333–61. NATO ASI Series, vol. 148. Dordrecht: Springer.
Dickinson, WR, Harbaugh, DW, Shaller, AH, Heller, PL and Snyder, WS (1983) Detrital modes of upper Paleozoic sandstones derived from Antler orogen in Nevada: implications for nature of Antler Orogeny. American Journal of Science 283, 481509.
Dickinson, WR and Suczek, CA (1979) Plate tectonics and sandstone compositions. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 63, 2164–82.
Dickinson, WR and Valloni, R (1980) Plate setting and provenance of sands in modern ocean basins. Geology 8, 82–6.
Ding, QF, Jiang, SY and Sun, FY (2014) Zircon U–Pb geochronology, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Triassic granite and diorite dikes from the Wulonggou mining area in the Eastern Kunlun Orogen, NW China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos 205, 266–83.
Du, YS, Zhang, Z, Zhou, DH and Peng, BX (2002) Silurian and Devonian palaeogeography of Northern Qilian–Hexi corridor and its sedimentary response to synorogenesis of North Qilian Orogenic Belt. Journal of Palaeogeography 4, 18.
Du, YS, Zhu, J and Gu, SZ (2007) Sedimentary geochemistry of the Cambrian–Ordovician cherts: implication on archipelagic ocean of the North Qilian orogenic belt. Science in China Series D Earth Sciences 37, 1314–29.
Du, YS, Zhu, J, Han, X and Gu, SZ (2004) From the back-arc basin to foreland basin – Ordovician–Devonian sedimentary basin and tectonic evolution in the North Qilian orogenic belt. Geological Bulletin of China 23, 911–7.
Duerr, SB (1994) Quick estimation of pebble volumes. Journal of Sedimentary Research 64, 677–9.
Etemad-Saeed, N, Hossein-Barzi, M, Adabi, MH, Miller, NR, Sadeghi, A, Houshmandzadeh, A and Stockli, DF (2016) Evidence for ca. 560 Ma Ediacaran glaciation in the Kahar formation, central Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Gondwana Research 31, 164–83.
Fatima, S and Khan, MS (2012) Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of Mesoproterozoic Kumbalgarh clastic rocks, NW Indian shield: implications for provenance, tectonic setting, and crustal evolution. International Geology Review 54, 1113–44.
Fedo, CM, Nesbitt, HW and Young, GM (1995) Unravelling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology 23, 921–4.
Feng, YM and He, SP (1995) Research for geology and geochemistry of several ophiolites in the North Qilian Mountains, China. Geological Review 40, 252–64 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Floyd, PA and Leveridge, BE (1987) Tectonic environment of the Devonian Gramscatho basin, south Cornwall: framework mode and geochemical evidence from turbiditic sandstones. Journal of the Geological Society, London 144, 531–42.
Garzanti, E, Vermeesch, P, Padoan, M, Resentini, A, Vezzoli, G and Ando, S (2014) Provenance of passive-margin sand (Southern Africa). The Journal of Geology 122, 1742.
Gehrels, GE, Yin, A and Wang, XF (2003) Detrital zircon geochronology of the northeastern Tibetan plateau. Geological Society of America Bulletin 115, 881–96.
Girty, GH, Ridge, DL and Knaack, C (1996) Provenance and depositional setting of Paleozoic chert and argillite, Sierra Nevada, California. Journal of Sedimentary Research 66, 107–18.
Grosch, EG, Bisnath, A, Frimmel, HE and Board, WS (2007) Geochemistry and tectonic setting of mafic rocks in western Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Proterozoic Maud Belt. Journal of the Geological Society, London 164, 465–75.
Gu, XX, Liu, JM, Zheng, MH, Tang, JX and Qi, L (2002) Provenance and tectonic setting of the Proterozoic turbidites in Hunan, South China: geochemical evidence. Journal of Sedimentary Research 72, 393407.
Guo, J and Li, H (1999) Angular unconformity between the Huashishan Group and Huangzhong Group in the Eastern Mid-Qilian Massif: identification and implications. Progress in Precambrian Research 22, 4752.
Hendrix, MS (2000) Evolution of Mesozoic sandstone compositions, Southern Junggar, Northern Tarim, and Western Turpan Basins, Northwest China: a detrital record of the ancestral Tian Shan. Journal of Sedimentary Research 70, 520–32.
Hofmann, A (2005) The geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from the Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt: implications for tectonic, hydrothermal and surface processes during mid-Archaean times. Precambrian Research 143, 2349.
Hou, Q, Mou, CL, Wang, QY, Han, M and Tan, ZY (2016) Provenance and tectonic setting of Devonian Laojunshan Formation in North Qilian Mountains. Journal of Shandong University of Science and Technology 35, 2836.
Hou, Q, Mou, CL, Wang, QY and Tan, ZY (2018a) Provenance and tectonic setting of the Early and Middle Devonian Xueshan Formation, the North Qilian Belt, China. Geological Journal 53, 1404–22.
Hou, Q, Mou, CL, Wang, QY, Tan, ZY, Ge, XY and Wang, XP (2018b) Geochemistry of sandstones from the Silurian Hanxia Formation, North Qilian Belt, China: implication for provenance, weathering and tectonic Setting. Geochemistry International 56, 362–77.
Hu, JJ, Qi, L, Fu, NQ and Yu, JY (2015) Geochemistry characteristics of the Low Permian sedimentary rocks from central uplift zone, Qiangtang Basin, Tibet: insights into source-area weathering, provenance, recycling, and tectonic setting. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 8, 5373–88.
Hsü, KJ, Pan, G and Sengor, AM (1995) Tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau: a working hypothesis based on the archipelago model of orogenesis. International Geology Review 37, 473508.
Koralay, T (2010) Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of upper Miocene Tekkedag volcanics (Central Anatolia-Turkey). Chemie der Erde 70, 335–51.
Li, C, Liu, Y, Zhu, B, Feng, Y and Wu, H (1978) Tectonic history of the Qinling and Qilian mountains. In Papers on Geology for International Exchange. Vol. 1, Regional Geology and Geological Mechanics, pp. 174–87. Beijing: Geological Publishing House.
Lin, YH and Zhang, LF (2012) Petrology and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the lawsonite-blueschist and eclogite from Qingshuigou blueschist belt in North Qilian Mountains in NW China and their tectonic implication. Acta Geologica Sinica 86, 1503–23.
Liu, ZQ (1988) Geological Map of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau and Adjacent Areas, Scale 1:1500000. Beijing: Geological Publishing House
Lopez, JMG, Bauluz, B, Fernandez-Nieto, C and Oliete, AY (2005) Factors controlling the trace-element distribution in fine-grained rocks: the Albian kaolinite-rich deposits of the Oliete Basin (NE Spain). Chemical Geology 214, 119.
Madhavaraju, J and Ramasamy, S (2002) Petrography and geochemistry of Late Maastrichtian–Early Paleocene sediments of Tiruchirapalli Cretaceous, Tamil Nadu – paleoweathering and provenance implications. Journal of the Geological Society of India 59, 133–42.
McLennan, SM, Hemming, S, McDaniel, DK and Hanson, GN (1993) Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance, and tectonics. In Processes Controlling the Composition of Clastic Sediments (eds Johnsson, MJ and Basu, A), pp. 2140. Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 284.
Meng, XH (1993) Sedimentary Basin and Construction Sequence. Beijing: Geology Publishing House.
Migani, F, Borghesi, F and Dinelli, E (2015) Geochemical characterization of surface sediments from the northern Adriatic wetlands around the Po river delta. Part I: bulk composition and relation to local background. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 156, 7288.
Moosavirad, SM, Janardhana, MR, Sethumadhav, MS, Moghadam, MR and Shankara, M (2011) Geochemistry of lower Jurassic shales of the Shemshak Formation, Kerman Province, Central Iran: provenance, source weathering and tectonic setting. Chemie der Erde 71, 279–88.
Nagarajan, R, John, S, Armstrong-Altrin, JS and Franz, L (2015) Provenance and tectonic setting of Miocene siliciclastic sediments, Sibuti Formation, northwestern Borneo. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 8, 8549–65.
Nesbitt, HW, Fedo, CM and Young, GM (1997) Quartz and feldspar stability, steady and non-steady-state weathering, and petrogenesis of siliciclastic sands and muds. The Journal of Geology 105, 173–91.
Nesbitt, HW and Young, GM (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299, 715–7.
Nesbitt, HW and Young, GM (1989) Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. The Journal of Geology 97, 129–47.
Nesbitt, HW, Young, GM and McLennan, SM (1996) Effects of chemical weathering and sorting on the petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments, with implications for provenance studies. The Journal of Geology 104, 525–42.
Roser, BP, Cooper, RA, Nathan, SA and Tulloch, AJ (1996) Reconnaissance sandstone geochemistry, provenance, and tectonic setting of the lower Paleozoic terrains of the West Coast and Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 39, 116.
Roser, BP and Korsch, RJ (1988) Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discriminant function analysis of major-element data. Chemical Geology 67, 119–39.
Samir, M and Zaid, SM (2015) Geochemistry of sandstones from the Pliocene Gabir Formation, north Marsa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt: implication for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting. Journal of African Earth Science 102, 117.
Santosh, M, Wilde, SA and Li, JH (2007) Timing of Paleoproterozoic ultrahigh temperature metamorphism in the North China craton: evidence from SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology. Precambrian Research 159, 178–96.
Song, SG, Niu, YL, Su, L and Xia, XH (2013) Tectonics of the North Qilian orogen, NW China. Gondwana Research 23, 1378–401.
Sun, SS and McDonough, WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of ocean basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds Saunders, AD and Norry, MJ), pp. 313–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 42.
Tao, HF, Sun, S, Wang, ZQ, Yang, XF and Jiang, L (2014) Petrography and geochemistry of lower Carboniferous greywacke and mudstones in Northeast Junggar, China: implications for provenance, source weathering, and tectonic setting. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 87, 1125.
Tapia-Fernandez, HJ, Armstrong-Altrin, JS and Selvaraj, K (2017) Geochemistry and U–Pb geochronology of detrital zircons in the Brujas beach sands, Campeche, southwestern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 76, 346–61.
Tawfik, M, El-Sorogy, A and Mowafi, A (2015) Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo–Suez District, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 101, 8495.
Taylor, SR and McLennan, SM (1985) The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
Valloni, R and Maynard, JB (1981) Detrital modes of recent deep-sea sands and their relation to tectonic settings: a first approximation. Sedimentology 28, 7583.
Vandekamp, PP and Leake, BE (1985) Petrography and geochemistry of feldspathic and mafic sediments of the northeastern Pacific margin. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 76, 411–49.
Verma, SP and Armstrong-Altrin, JS (2013) New multidimensional diagrams for tectonic discrimination of siliciclastic sediments and their application to Precambrian basins. Chemical Geology 355, 117–80.
Wan, Y, Xu, Z, Yang, J and Zhang, J (2003) The Precambrian high-grade basement of the Qilian Terrane and neighboring areas: its ages and composition. Acta Geoscientia Sinica 24, 319–24.
Wanas, HA and Abuel-Hassan, MM (2006) Paleosols of the upper Cretaceous–lower Tertiary Maghra Elbahari Formation in the northeastern portion of the Eastern Desert, Egypt: their recognition and geological significance. Sedimentary Geology 183, 243–59.
Wang, ZM, Han, CM, Xiao, WJ and Sakyi, PA (2017) Paleozoic subduction-related magmatism in the Duobagou area, Dunhuang block: constrained by zircon U–Pb geochronology and Lu–Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of metaigneous rocks. Lithosphere 9, 1012–32.
Wang, ZW, Wang, J and Fu, XG (2017) Organic material accumulation of Carnian mudstones in the North Qiangtang Depression, eastern Tethys: controlled by the paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, and provenance. Marine and Petroleum Geology 88, 440–57.
White, NM, Pringle, M, Garzanti, E, Bickle, M, Najman, Y, Chapman, H and Friend, P (2002) Constraints on the exhumation and erosion of the High Himalayan Slab, NW India, from foreland basin deposits. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 195, 2944.
Xia, LQ, Xia, ZC and Xu, XY (1996) Origin of Marine Volcanic Rocks in North Qilian Mountains. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, pp. 1153 (in Chinese).
Xia, LQ, Xia, ZC and Xu, XY (2003) Magmagenesis in the Ordovician backarc basins of the Northern Qilian Mountains, China. Geological Society of America Bulletin 115, 1510–22.
Xiao, WJ, Brian, FW and Yong, Y (2009) Early Paleozoic to Devonian multiple-accretionary model for the Qilian Shan, NW Chian. Journal of Asian Earth Science 35, 323–33.
Xu, YJ, Du, YS and Yang, JH (2010) Sedimentary geochemistry and provenance of the Lower and Middle Devonian Laojunshan Formation, the North Qilian Orogenic Belt. Science China Earth Science 53, 356–67.
Xu, Z, Xu, H, Zhang, J and Li, H (1994) The Zhoulangshan Caledonian subduction complex in the northern Qilian Mountains and its dynamics(in Chinese). Acta Geologica Sinica 68, 115.
Xu, ZQ, Zhang, JX and Li, HB (2000) Architecture and orogeny of the northern Qilian orogenic belt, northwestern China. Geological Society of China Journal 43, 125–41.
Yan, Z, Xiao, JW and Liu, C (2007) Detrital composition of the Laojunshan Conglomerate and tectonic settings of its source rocks in the Qilian Mountains. Geological Bulletin of China 25, 8398.
Yan, Z, Xiao, WJ, Windley, BF, Wang, ZQ and Li, JL (2010) Silurian clastic sediments in the North Qian Shan, NW China: chemical and isotopic constraints on their forearc provenance with implications for the Paleozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Sedimentary Geology 231, 98114.
Yang, JS, Xu, ZQ, Zhang, JX, Chu, ZY, Zhang, R and Liu, JG (2001) Tectonic significance of early Paleozoic high-pressure rocks in Altun-Quaidam-Qilian Mountains, northwest China. In Paleozoic and Mesozoic Tectonic Evolution of Central Asia: From Continental Assembly to Intracontinental Deformation (eds Hendrix, MS and Davis, GA), pp. 151–70. Geological Society of America Memoir no. 194.
Yang, RC, van Loon, AJ, Jin, X, Jin, Z, Han, ZZ, Fan, A and Liu, Q (2019) From divergent to convergent plates: resulting facies shifts along the southern and western margins of the Sino-Korean Plate during the Ordovician. Journal of Geodynamics 129, 149–61.
Yu, SY (1984) Component-genetic classification of conglomerate and breccia (in Chinese). Geological Science and Technology Information 3, 3740.
Yuan, W and Yang, ZY (2014a) The Alashan Terrane did not amalgamate with North China block by the Late Permian: evidence from Carboniferous and Permian paleomagnetic results. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 104, 145–59.
Yuan, W and Yang, ZY (2014b) The Alashan Terrane was not part of North China by the Late Devonian: evidence from detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes. Gondwana Research 27, 1270–82.
Yuan, W and Yang, ZY (2015) Late Devonian closure of the North Qilian Ocean: evidence from detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes in the eastern North Qilian Orogenic Belt. Geology Review 1, 117.
Zaid, SM (2015) Geochemistry of sandstones from the Pliocene Gabir Formation, north Marsa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt: implication for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting. Journal of African Earth Sciences 102, 117.
Zhang, Q, Sun, XM and Zhou, DJ (1997) The characteristics of North Qilian ophiolites, forming settings and their tectonic significance. Advances in Earth Science 12, 366–93 (in Chinese).
Zhang, Q, Wang, Y and Qian, Q (2000) The North Qilian oceanic basin of the Early Paleozoic age: an autacogen or a large oceanic basin. Scientia Geologica Sinica 35, 121–8.
Zhao, GC, Sun, M, Wilde, SA and Li, SZ (2004) A Paleomesproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth, and breakup. Earth-Science Reviews 67, 91123.
Zhao, GC, Sun, M, Wilde, SA and Li, SZ (2005) Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North China Craton: key issues revisited. Precambrian Research 136, 177202.
Zhou, YY, Zhao, TP, Wang, CY and Guo, HH (2011) Geochronology and geochemistry of 2.5 to 2.4 Ga granitic plutons from the southern margin of the North China Craton: implications for a tectonic transition from arc to post-collisional setting. Gondwana Research 20, 171–83.
Zuo, G and Liu, J (1987) The evolution of tectonic of early Paleozoic in North Qilian range. China. Scientia Geologica Sinica 1, 1424 (in Chinese).
Zuo, GC and Wu, HQ (1997) A bisubduction-collision orogenic model of Early-Paleozoic in the middle part of North Qilian area. Advances in Earth Science 12, 315–22 (in Chinese).

Keywords

Petrography and geochemistry of the Lower Silurian sandstones from the Angzanggou Formation in the North Qilian Belt, China: implications for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting

  • Qian Hou (a1) (a2), Chuanlong Mou (a1) (a2), Zuozhen Han (a1), Qiyu Wang (a1) (a2), Zhiyuan Tan (a3) and Xiangying Ge (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed