Skip to main content
×
Home

Timing of plutonism in the Gällivare area: implications for Proterozoic crustal development in the northern Norrbotten ore district, Sweden

  • ZMAR SARLUS (a1), ULF B. ANDERSSON (a2), TOBIAS E. BAUER (a1), CHRISTINA WANHAINEN (a1), OLOF MARTINSSON (a1), ROGER NORDIN (a3) and JOEL B.H. ANDERSSON (a1) (a2)...
Abstract
Abstract

Zircon ion probe (secondary-ion mass spectrometry or SIMS) data from a set of intrusive rocks emplaced in the vicinity of major ore bodies, as well as from large igneous intrusions in the Gällivare area, gave the following results: (1) the Dundret ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1883±5 Ma), the Aitik granite (1883±5 Ma), the Nautanen diorite (1870±12 Ma), the Vassaravaara ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1798±4 Ma), the Aitik dolerite (1813±9 Ma), the Bergmästergruvan and Sikträsk syenites (1795±4 Ma and 1801±3 Ma, respectively) and the Naalojärvi granite (1782±5 Ma). These data broadly fall within the ranges 1.89–1.87 Ga (early Svecofennian) and 1.80–1.78 Ga (late Svecofennian), but geochronologically allow further subdivision into pulses at 1885–1880, 1875–1870, 1800 and 1780 Ma. During these events, large layered ultramafic–mafic and felsic plutonic rocks were generated with distinct overlap in time suggesting coeval felsic–mafic magmatism. Results also indicate the presence of inherited c. 1.87 Ga zircon crystals in the plutonic rocks at 1.78 Ga, supporting reworking of the previous crust. These data indicate the importance of mantle-derived mafic underplating in the process of crustal magma generation in the region. The c. 1.88 Ga event that generated ultramafic–mafic layered complexes is tentatively suggested to have played an important role in the formation of the Aitik Cu–Au porphyry system. The later event at c. 1.80 Ga, generating voluminous mafic–felsic units, is suggested to be coupled to the regional iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) overprint.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: zimer.sarlus@ltu.se
References
Hide All
Alapieti T. & Lahtinen J. 2002. Platinum-group element mineralization in layered intrusions of northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula, Russia. In The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of Platinum-group Elements (Ed. Cabri L. J.), 507–46. Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, and Petroleum 54.
Andersen T., Andersson U. B., Graham S., Åberg G. & Simonsen S. L. 2009. Granitic magmatism by melting of juvenile continental crust: new constraints on the source of Paleoproterozoic granitoids in Fennoscandia from Hf isotopes in zircon. Journal of Geological Society 166 (2), 233–48.
Andersson U. B. 1991. Granitoid episodes and mafic-felsic magma interaction in the Svecofennian of the Fennoscandian Shield, with main emphasis on the 1.8 Ga plutonics. Precambrian Research 51, 127–49.
Andersson U. B. 1997. An overview of the Fennoscandian rapakivi granite complexes, with emphasis on the Swedish occurrences. In Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks in Central Sweden (eds Ahl M., Andersson U. B., Lundqvist Th. & Sundblad K.), pp. 3349. Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), C Series no. 87.
Andersson U. B., Eklund O. & Claeson D. T. 2004 a. Geochemical character of the mafic-hybrid magmatism in the Småland-Värmland belt. In The Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB) in Sweden: A Review of its Character and Evolution (Högdahl K., Andersson U. B. & Eklund O. eds), pp. 3755. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper no. 37.
Andersson U. B., Rutanen H., Johansson Å., Mansfeld J. & Rimša A. 2007. Characterisation of the Palaeoproterozoic mantle beneath the Fennoscandian Shield: geochemistry and isotope geology (Nd, Sr) of ~1.8 Ga mafic plutonic rocks from the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt in southeast Sweden. International Geology Reviews 49, 587–25.
Andersson U. B., Sjöström H., Högdahl K. & Eklund O. 2004 b. The Transscandinavian Igneous Belt: evolutionary models. In The Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB) in Sweden: A Review of its Character and Evolution (Högdahl K., Andersson U. B. & Eklund O. eds), pp. 104–12. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper no. 37.
Barton M. D. & Johnson D. A. 2000. Alternative brine sources for Fe-oxide (Cu-Au) systems: Implications for hydrothermal alteration and metals. In Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective (ed. Porter T. M.), pp. 4360. Adelaide: Australian Mineral Foundation.
Bergman S., Billström K., Persson P. O., Skiöld T. & Evins P. 2006. U-Pb age evidence for repeated Palaeoproterozoic metamorphism and deformation near the Pajala shear zone in the northern Fennoscandian shield. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 128 (1), 720.
Bergman S., Kübler L. & Martinsson O. 2001. Description of regional geological and geophysical maps of northern Norrbotten county (east of the Caledonian orogen). Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning Ba 56, 5100.
Bergström U., Bergman S. & Hellström F. 2015. The Kukkola gneiss-protolith age of an Archean metatonalite, northern Sweden. Svergies Geologiska Undersökning, Rapport 2015:07, 12.
Billström K., Broman C., Eilu P., Martinsson O., Niranen T., Ojala J., Wanhainen C. & Weihed P. 2010. IOCG and related mineral deposits of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield. In 2010 - Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective Advances in the Understanding of IOCG Deposits Vol. 4 (ed. Porter T. M.), pp. 381414. Adelaide: PGC Publishing.
Boliden. 2005. New Boliden AB. Boliden annual report 2015. Boliden in cooperation with Narva, Göteborgstryckeriet, Mölndal 2016, 124 pp. Available at: www.Boliden.com.
Cliff R. A., Rickard D. & Blake K. 1990. Isotope systematics of the Kiruna magnetite ores, Sweden: part 1. Age of the ore. Economic Geology 85 (8), 1770–6.
Corfu F., Hanchar J. M., Hoskin P. W. O. & Kinny P. 2003. Atlas of zircon textures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 53, 469500.
Hanski E. J., Huhma H., Rastas P. & Kamenetsky V. S. 2001. The Palaeoproterozoic Komatiite-Picrite Association of Finnish Lapland. Journal of Petrology 42, 855–76.
Hitzman M. W., Oreskes N. & Einaudi M. T. 1992. Geological characteristics and tectonic setting of proterozoic iron oxide (Cu-U-Au-REE) deposits. Precambrian Resarch 58, 241–87.
Högdahl K., Andersson U. & Eklund O. 2004. The Transscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB) in Sweden: a review of its character and evolution. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 37, 1125.
Holmqvist P. 1905. Studien über die Granite von Schweden. Alqvist & Wiksells. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Uppsala 7, 77269.
Johansson Å., Andersson U. B. & Hålenius U. 2011. Ultrabasic-basic intrusions of Roslagen, east-central Sweden: mineralogy and geochemistry of early Svecofennian arc cumulates. Geological Journal 47, 557–93.
Johansson Å. & Hålenius U. 2013. Palaeoproterozoic mafic intrusions along the Avesta-Östhammar belt, east-central Sweden: mineralogy, geochemistry, and magmatic evolution. International Geology Review 55, 131–57.
Kathol B. & Martinsson O. 1999. Berggrunds-kartan. 30J Rensjön, 1: 50,000. Geological Survey of Sweden Ai.
Koistinen T., Stephens M. B., Bogatchev V., Nordgulen Ø., Wennerstrom M. & Korhonen J. 2001. Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield, Scale 1:2 000 000. Geological Surveys of Finland, Norway and Sweden and the North-West Department of Natural Resources of Russia.
Lahtinen R., Garde A. A. & Melezhik V. A. 2008. Paleoproterozoic evolution of Fennoscandia and Greenland. Episodes 31, 20–8.
Lahtinen R., Huhma H., Lahaye Y., Kousa J. & Luukas J. 2015. Archean–Proterozoic collision boundary in central Fennoscandia: Revisited. Precambrian Research 261, 127–65.
Lahtinen R., Korja A. & Nironen M. 2005. Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution. Developments in Precambrian Geology 14, 481531.
LKAB (Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB). 2015. LKAB annual and sustainability report 2015. LKAB in cooperation with Rippler Communications and Berger & Pihl, Lule Grafiska, 140 pp. Available at: www.lkab.com.
Ludwig K. R. 2003. Isoplot 3.00: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication, 70 pp.
Lundqvist T., Skiöld T. & Vaasjoki M. 2000. Archaean–Proterozoic geochronology of the Vallen-Alhamn area, northern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 122, 273–80.
Lynch E. P., Jönberger J., Bauer T. E., Sarlus Z. & Martinsson O. 2015. Meta-volcanosedimentary rocks in the Nautanen area, Norrbotten: preliminary lithological and deformation characteristics. Barents project 2014, Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Rapport 2015:30, 51 pp.
Martinsson O. 1997. Paleoproterozoic greenstones at Kiruna in northern Sweden: a product of continental rifting and associated mafic-ultramafic volcanism. Paper 1 in Tectonic setting and metallogeny of the Kiruna greenstones. Ph.D. thesis, Division of Applied Geology, Luleå University of Technology. Published thesis.
Martinsson O. 2004. Geology and metallogeny of the Northern Norrbotten Fe-Cu-Au Province. Society of Economic Geologists 33, 131–48.
Martinsson O., Billström K., Broman C., Weihed P. & Wanhainen C. 2016. Metallogeny of the Northern Norrbotten Ore Province, northern Fennoscandian Shield with emphasis on IOCG and apatite-iron ore deposits. Ore Geology Reviews 78, 447–92.
Martinsson O. & Perdahl J.-A. 1995. Paleoproterozoic extensional and compressional magmatism in northern Sweden. Paper II in Svecofennian volcanism in northernmost Sweden (Perdahl J.-A.). Ph.D. thesis, Division of Applied Geology, Luleå University of Technology. Published thesis.
Martinsson O., Vaasjoki M. & Persson P. 1999. U-Pb zircon ages of Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic granitoids in the Torne-träsk-Råstojaure area, northern Sweden. In Radiometric Dating Results (ed. Bergman S.), pp. 7090. Division of Bedrock Geology, Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Series C, 1999, 70–90.
Mellqvist C., Öhlander B., Skiöld T. & Wikström A. 1999. The Archaean–Proterozoic Palaeoboundary in the Luleå area, northern Sweden: field and isotope geochemical evidence for a sharp terrane boundary. Precambrian Research 96, 225–43.
Nyström J. 1982. Post-Svecokarelian andinotype evolution in central Sweden. Geologische Rundschau 71 (1), 141–57.
Öhlander B., Mellqvist C. & Skiöld T. 1999. Sm–Nd isotope evidence of a collisional event in the Precambrian of northern Sweden. Precambrian Research 93, 105–17.
Öhlander B. & Skiöld T. 1994. Diversity of 1.8 Ga potassic granitoids along the edge of the Archaean craton in northern Scandinavia: a result of melt formation at various depths and from various sources. Lithos 33, 265–83.
Öhlander B., Skiöld T., Elming S.-Å., Claesson S. & Nisca D. H. 1993. Delineation and character of the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary in northern Sweden. Precambrian Research 64, 6784.
Romer R. L. 1996. U-Pb systematics of stilbite-bearing low-temperature mineral assemblages from the Malmberget iron ore, northern Sweden. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 1951–61.
Romer R., Martinsson O. & Perdahl J.-A. 1994. Geochronology of the Kiruna iron ores and hydrothermal alterations. Economic Geology 89, 1249–61.
Romer R. & Wright J. 1992. U-Pb dating of columbites: a geochronologic tool to date magmatism and ore deposits. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 2137–42.
Rutanen H. & Andersson U. B. 2009. Mafic plutonic rocks in a continental-arc setting: Geochemistry of 1.87–1.78 Ga rocks from south-central Sweden and models of their palaeotectonic setting. Geological Journal 44 (3), 241–79.
Sarlus Z. 2016. Geochemical and geochronological constraints on 1.88 and 1.80 Ga magmatic events in the Gällivare area, northern Sweden. Licenciate thesis, Luleå Univervisty of Technolology, Luleå, Sweden, 33 pp. Published thesis.
Skiöld T. 1979. Zircon ages from an Archaean gneiss province in northern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 101, 169–71.
Skiöld T. 1981. U-Pb isotope analyses from a Precambrian gneiss area in northern Sweden and their chronostratigraphic implications. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 103, 1725.
Skiöld T. 1986. On the age of the Kiruna Greenstones, northern Sweden. Precambrian Research 32, 3544.
Skiöld T. 1988. Implications of new U-Pb zircon chronology to early Proterozoic crustal accretion in northern Sweden. Precambrian Research 38, 147–64.
Skiöld T., Öhlander B. & Markkula H. 1993. Chronology of Proterozoic orogenic processes at the Archaean continental margin in northern Sweden. Precambrian Research 64, 225–38.
Skiöld T., Öhlander B., Vocke R. D. & Hamilton P. J. 1988. Chemistry of Proterozoic orogenic processes at a continental margin in northern Sweden. Chemical Geology 69, 193207.
Smith M., Storey C. & Jeffries T. 2005. LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of titanite: New constraints on multistage geological evolution of the Norrbotten mining district, Sweden. In Proceedings of Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge 829–32 pp. Berline, Heidelberg: Springer.
Smith M., Storey C., Jeffries T. & Ryan C. 2009. In situ U-Pb and trace element analysis of accessory minerals in the Kiruna District, Norrbotten, Sweden: new constraints on the timing and origin of mineralization. Journal of Petrology 50, 2063–94.
Stacey J. S. & Kramers J. D. 1975. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a 2-stage model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 26, 207–21.
Storey C., Smith M. & Jeffries T. 2007. In situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of metavolcanics of Norrbotten, Sweden: Records of extended geological histories in complex titanite grains. Chemical Geology 240, 163–81.
Tollefsen E. 2014. Thermal and chemical variations in metamorphic rocks in Nautanen, Gällivare, Sweden. Master's thesis. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 50 pp. Published thesis.
Vaasjoki M. 2001. Radiometric age determinations from Finnish Lapland and their bearing on the timing of Precambrian volcano-sedimentary sequences. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 33, 279 pp.
Wanhainen C. 2005. On the origin and evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, Northern Sweden. Ph.D. thesis, Luleå Univervisty of Technolology, Luleå, Sweden, 38 pp. Published thesis.
Wanhainen C., Billström K. & Martinsson O. 2006. Age, petrology and geochemistry of the porphyritic Aitik intrusion, and its relation to the disseminated Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 128, 273–86.
Wanhainen C., Billström K., Martinsson O., Stein H. & Nordin R. 2005. 160 Ma of magmatic/hydrothermal and metamorphic activity in the Gällivare area: Re-Os dating of molybdenite and U-Pb dating of titanite from the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden. Mineralium Deposita 40 (4), 435–47.
Wanhainen C., Broman C., Martinsson O. & Magnor B. 2012. Modification of a Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-like system: integration of structural, geochemical, petrographic, and fluid inclusion data from the Aitik Cu-Au-Ag deposit, northern Sweden. Ore Geology Reviews 48, 306–31.
Weihed P., Arndt N., Billström K., Duchesne J. C., Eilu P., Martinsson O., Papunen H. & Lahtinen R. 2005. Precambrian geodynamics and ore formation: The Fennoscandian Shield. Ore Geology Reviews 27, 273322.
Weihed P., Billström K., Persson P. O. & Weihed J. B. 2002. Relationship between 1.90–1.85 Ga accretionary processes and 1.82–1.80 Ga oblique subduction at the Karelian craton margin, Fennoscandian Shield. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 124, 163–80.
Westhues A., Hanchar J. M., Whitehouse M. J. & Martinsson O. 2016. New constraints on the timing of host-rock emplacement, hydrothermal alteration, and iron oxide-apatite mineralization in the Kiruna district, Norrbotten, Sweden. Economic Geology 111 (7), 1595–618.
Whitehouse M. J. & Kamber B. S. 2005. Assigning dates to thin gneissic veins in high-grade metamorphic terranes: a cautionary tale from Akilia, southwest Greenland. Journal of Petrology 46 (2), 291318.
Whitehouse M. J., Kamber B. S. & Moorbath S. 1999. Age significance of U–Th–Pb zircon data from early Archaean rocks of west Greenland: a reassessment based on combined ion-microprobe and imaging studies. Chemical Geology 160 (3), 201–24.
Wiedenbeck M., Alle P., Corfu F., Griffin W. L., Meier M., Oberli F., von Quadt A., Roddick J.C. & Spiegel W. 1995. Three natural zircon standards for the U-Th-Pb, Lu-Hf, trace element and REE analysis. Geostandards Newsletter 19, 123.
Wilson M. 1980. Granite types in Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 102 (2), 167–76.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 24 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 148 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 27th April 2017 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.