American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5. Arlington, VA.
Anderson P (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology
Bakare MO (2012). Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among African children: a review of epidemiology and co-morbidities. African Journal of Psychiatry (Johannesbg)
Beddington J, Cooper CL, Field J, Goswami U, Huppert FA, Jenkins R, Jones HS, Kirkwood TB, Sahakian BJ, Thomas SM (2008). The mental wealth of nations. Nature
Biederman J, Faraone SV (2006). The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income. Medscape General Medicine
Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Doyle AE, Seidman LJ, Wilens TE, Ferrero F, Morgan CL, Faraone SV (2004). Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Blanche S, Tardieu M, Rustin P, Slama A, Barret B, Firtion G, Ciraru-Vigneron N, Lacroix C, Rouzioux C, Mandelbrot L (1999). Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction and perinatal exposure to antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. The Lancet
Boivin MJ (2002). Effects of early cerebral malaria on cognitive ability in Senegalese children. Journal of Developmental& Behavioral Pediatrics
Boivin MJ, Bangirana P, Byarugaba J, Opoka RO, Idro R, Jurek AM, John CC (2007). Cognitive impairment after cerebral malaria in children: a prospective study. Pediatrics
Boivin MJ, Bangirana P, Nakasujja N, Page CF, Shohet C, Givon D, Bass JK, Opoka RO, Klein PS (2013). A year-long caregiver training program improves cognition in preschool Ugandan children with human immunodeficiency virus. The Journal of Pediatrics
163, 1409–1416. e5.
Boivin MJ, Ruel TD, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Cao H, Eller LA, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Achan J (2010). HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared to subtype D in ART-naïve Ugandan children. AIDS (London, England)
Caldwell BM, Bradley RH (1984). Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Little Rock: Arkansas.
Chinawa JM, Odetunde OI, Obu HA, Chinawa AT, Bakare MO, Ujunwa FA (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neglected issue in the developing world. Behavioural Neurology
Clark C, Prior M, Kinsella GJ (2000). Do executive function deficits differentiate between adolescents with ADHD and oppositional defiant/conduct disorder? A neuropsychological study using the Six Elements Test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Collins PY, Patel V, Joestl SS, March D, Insel TR, Daar AS, Anderson W, Dhansay MA, Phillips A, Shurin S, Walport M, Ewart W, Savill SJ, Bordin IA, Costello EJ, Durkin M, Fairburn C, Glass RI, Hall W, Huang Y, Hyman SE, Jamison K, Kaaya S, Kapur S, Kleinman A, Ogunniyi A, Otero-Ojeda A, Poo MM, Ravindranath V, Sahakian BJ, Saxena S, Singer PA, Stein DJ (2011). Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature
Costello Anna B & Jason Osborne (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation
10(7). Available online: http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=10&n=7
Devellis RF (2011). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Sage Publications: Los Angeles.
Diamond A (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology
Dinno A (2009). Implementing Horn's parallel analysis for principal component analysis and factor analysis. Stata Journal
Döpfner M, Steinhausen H-C, Coghill D, Dalsgaard S, Poole L, Ralston SJ, Rothenberger A (2006). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of ADHD assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale in a pan-European study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Dupaul GJ, Power TJ, Anastopoulos AD, Reid R (1998). ADHD Rating Scale—IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation. Guilford Press, New York.
Faraone SV, Sergeant J, Gillberg C, Biederman J (2003). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition?. World Psychiatry
Fernald LC, Weber A, Galasso E, Ratsifandrihamanana L (2011). Socioeconomic gradients and child development in a very low income population: evidence from Madagascar. Developmental Science
Gioia GA, Espy KA, Isquith PK (2003). Behavior rating inventory of executive function, preschool version (BRIEF-P). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources., Odessa, Florida.
Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L (2000). Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology
Grantham-Mcgregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet
Greenberg LM, Waldmant ID (1993). Developmental normative data on the test of variables of attention (TOVA™). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Harris EL, Schuerholz LJ, Singer HS, Reader MJ, Brown JE, Cox C, Mohr J, Chase GA, Denckla MB (1995). Executive function in children with Tourette syndrome and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Idro R, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Balyejjussa S, Mirembe G, Mugasha C, Tugumisirize J, Byarugaba J (2010). Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children. BMC Research Notes
Kashala E, Tylleskar T, Elgen I, Kayembe KT, Sommerfelt K (2005). Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Health Sciences
Kaufman AS (2004). KABC-II: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. AGS Publishing: Shoreview, Minnesota.
Kerr SJ, Puthanakit T, Vibol U, Aurpibul L, Vonthanak S, Kosalaraksa P, Kanjanavanit S, Hansudewechakul R, Wongsawat J, Luesomboon W (2014). Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV. AIDS Care
Klasen H, Crombag AC (2013). What works where? A systematic review of child and adolescent mental health interventions for low and middle income countries. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology
Leibson CL, Katusic SK, Barbaresi WJ, Ransom J, O'brien PC (2001). Use and costs of medical care for children and adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Llorente AM, Brouwers P, Leighty R, Malee K, Smith R, Harris L, Serchuck LK, Blasini I, Chase C (2014). An analysis of select emerging executive skills in perinatally HIV-1-infected children. Applied Neuropsychology: Child
Lovejoy DW, Ball J, Keats M, Stutts ML, Spain EH, Janda L, Janusz J (1999). Neuropsychological performance of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): diagnostic classification estimates for measures of frontal lobe/executive functioning. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Mahone EM, Cirino PT, Cutting LE, Cerrone PM, Hagelthorn KM, Hiemenz JR, Singer HS, Denckla MB (2002). Validity of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in children with ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Mahone EM, Hoffman J (2007). Behavior ratings of executive function among preschoolers with ADHD. The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Mcgee R, Feehan M (1991). Are girls with problems of attention underrecognized?
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Mcgoey KE, Dupaul GJ, Haley E, Shelton TL (2007). Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool: the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Mellins CA, Elkington KS, Leu C-S, Santamaria EK, Dolezal C, Wiznia A, Bamji M, Mckay MM, Abrams EJ (2012). Prevalence and change in psychiatric disorders among perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed youth. AIDS Care
Mellins CA, Smith R, O'driscoll P, Magder LS, Brouwers P, Chase C, Blasini I, Hittleman J, Llorente A, Matzen E (2003). High rates of behavioral problems in perinatally HIV-infected children are not linked to HIV disease. Pediatrics
Nozyce ML, Lee SS, Wiznia A, Nachman S, Mofenson LM, Smith ME, Yogev R, Mcintosh K, Stanley K, Pelton S (2006). A behavioral and cognitive profile of clinically stable HIV-infected children. Pediatrics
Polanczyk G, De Lima M, Horta B, Biederman J, Rohde L (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry
Puthanakit T, Ananworanich J, Vonthanak S, Kosalaraksa P, Hansudewechakul R, Van Der Lugt J, Kerr SJ, Kanjanavanit S, Ngampiyaskul C, Wongsawat J (2013). Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK (2012). Neurocognitive and Motor Deficits in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children With High CD4 Cell Counts. Clin Infect Dis. first published online February 4, 2012 doi:10.1093/cid/cir1037.
Stata Corporation (1985–2013). Stata Statistical Software Release 12.0: Programming. Stata Corporation: College Station, Texas.
Thompson B, Daniel LG (1996). Factor analytic evidence for the construct validity of scores: A historical overview and some guidelines. Educational and Psychological Measurement
Walker SP, Wachs TD, Grantham-Mcgregor S, Black MM, Nelson CA, Huffman SL, Baker-Henningham H, Chang SM, Hamadani JD, Lozoff B (2011). Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. The Lancet
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV, Spencer T (1997). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with early onset substance use disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry
Willoughby MT (2003). Developmental course of ADHD symptomatology during the transition from childhood to adolescence: a review with recommendations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Wolters P, Brouwers P (2005). Evaluation of neurodevelopmental deficits in children with HIV-1 infection. The Neurology of AIDS: Gendelman HE, Grant I, Everall IP, Lipton SA, Swindells S (eds), Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, pp. 667–682.
World Health Organization (2003). Caring for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: Setting WHO Directions. World Health Organization: Geneva.
World Health Organization (2011). Mental Health Atlas 2011. World Health Organization: Geneva.
Zeegers I, Rabie H, Swanevelder S, Edson C, Cotton M, Van Toorn R (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity and oppositional defiance disorder in HIV-infected South African children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Zhang S, Faries DE, Vowles M, Michelson D (2005). ADHD Rating Scale IV: psychometric properties from a multinational study as a clinician-administered instrument. International Journal of Methods Psychiatric Research