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Anarchism in Japan

  • Chushichi Tsuzuki
Extract

IT WOULD SEEM CURIOUS TO AN OUTSIDE OBSERVER THAT THE DISSOLUTION of the Nihon-Anakisuto-Renmei (Japanese Anarchist Federation) should be formally announced in January 1969, at a time when militant students were determined to defend their ‘fortress’, the Yasuda auditorium of Tokyo University, which they had occupied for several months, against an attack by the riot police. The anarchists themselves called the dissolution ‘a deployment in the face of the enemy’. Yet they had to admit at the same time that they had reached a deadlock in their attempts within the Federation to formulate new theories of anarchism and to hit upon new forms of organization for the new era of direct action which they believed had begun. Indeed, they remained very weak numerically, and they had only a limited direct influence among the student movements which appeared in their eyes to have ushered in this era.

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1 Jiyū-Rengo (‘Libera Federacio’), 1 January 1969.

2 Matsuda, Michio, Anākizumu (Anarchism), Tokyo, 1963, p. 61 .

3 Jōkyō (Situation), No. 8, 1969, p. 37.

4 Yamoto, Y., Chisei-no-Hanran (Revolt of Intellect), Tokyo, 1969, p. 195 ; Asabi Journal, 6 July 1969.

5 For instance Shūsui Kōtoku in Hikari (Ligbt), 15 December 1906.

6 Osugi, ‘Kusari-Kōjō (The Chain Factory)’, Kindai-Shisō (Modern Thought), September 1913.

7 Ōsugi in Rōdō-Undō (Labour Movement), October 1919, June 1920.

8 Iwasa, Kakumei-Dansō (Thoughts on Revolution), 1958, quoted in Kiyoshi Akiyama, Nibon-no Hangyaku-Shisō (Rebellious Thought in Japan), Tokyo, 1968, p. 164; Iwasa, ‘Kaihō-nitaisuru-Anakisuto-no-Yakuwari (The Anarchist Role in Emancipation), Jiyū-Rengō-Shinbun (Liberal Federation Newspaper), 1 May 1930, Matsuda, op. cit., pp. 376, 382.

9 Kensuke Yamaguchi, ‘Nihon-niokeru-Anaruko-Sandikarizumu (Anarcho-Syndicalism in Japan)’, Shisō-no-Kagaku (Science of Thought), November 1966.

10 Ishikawa to Carpenter, 14 December 1909, Carpenter Collection, Sheffield City Library.

11 Yamaguchi, loc. cit., 4.

12 Published in Shisō-no-Kagaku, December 1966.

13 Osawa, Michio, ‘Sengo-Nihon-no-Anakizumu-Undō (The Anarchist Movement in Post-war Japan) IV’, Jiyū-Rengō, 1 10 1964 .

14 Heimin-Sbinbun, 12 February 1947.

15 Ibid., 9 August 1948.

16 Yamanaka, Akira, Sengo-Gakusei-Undōshi (History of the Post-war Student Movement), Tokyo 1969, p. 154 .

17 Kurohata, 1 December 1958.

18 Kurohata, 1 July 1960.

19 Ibid.

20 Kurohata, 1 February 1962.

21 Jiyū-Rnegō, 1 June 1965.

22 Jiyū-Rengō, 1 June 1965.

23 Oda, ‘Genti-toshiteno-Minshushugi-no-Fukken (Rehabilitation of Democracy as a Principle)’, Tenbō (Prospect), August 1967.

24 Jiyū-Rengō, 1 December 1965.

25 Keishi Takami, Hansen-Seinen-Iinkai, 1968, p. 131.

26 Behan-i (ed.), Shi-no-Shōnin-e-no-Chōsen (Challenge to the Merchants of Death), 1967, passim.

27 Jiyū-R-engō, 1 February 1967.

28 Asahi-Shinbun, 7 August 1969.

29 Asahi-Shinbun, 9 October 1967.

30 Jijū-Rengō, 1 July 1968.

31 Koken Koyama, ‘Zengakuren-no-Senryaku-to-Senjutsu (The Strategy and Tactics of the Zengakuren)’, Rōdō-Mondai, July 1968.

32 It is interesting to note that the students did not complain much about the defects of meritocracy: the intense competition for more promising schools, universities, and jobs, which distorted their adolescent life.

33 Asahi-Shinbun, 4 August 1969.

34 Hangyaku-no-Barikeido (Barricade for Revolt), 1968, passim.

35 Asahi-Shinbun, 5 September 1969.

36 Shibata, Shingo (ed.), Gendai-Nihon-no-Kadikarizumu (Japanese Radicalism Today), Tokyo, 1970, pp. 342, 346.

37 Yamamoto, op. cit., pp. 86, 92, 138.

38 Yoshimoto, ‘Jiritsu-no-Shisō-teki-Kyoten (Intellectual Basis of Independence’, Tenbō (Prospect), Match 1965, 27.

39 Osawa, ‘Yomigaeru-Kakumeiteki-Bōryoku (Resuscitation of Revolutionary Violence)’, Kuro-no-Techō (Black Notebook), January 1969.

40 Oda in Gendai-no-Me (Contemporary Witness), March 1969.

41 Asahi-Shinbun, 13 September 1969.

42 Shibata (ed.), op. cit., 40.

43 Jiyū-Rengō, 1 February 1963.

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Government and Opposition
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