THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE NATION-STATE INTO A ‘COMPETITION state’ lies at the heart of political globalization. In seeking to adapt to a range of complex changes in cultural, institutional and market structures, both state and market actors are attempting to reinvent the state as a quasi-‘enterprise association’ in a wider world context, a process which involves three central paradoxes. The first paradox is that this process does not lead to a simple decline of the state but may be seen to necessitate the actual expansion of de facto state intervention and regulation in the name of competitiveness and marketization.
1 Ionescu, Ghita, The Break–up of the Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966 .
2 Ionescu, Ghita, ‘The Impact of the Information Revolution on Parliamentary Sovereignties’, Government and Opposition, Vol. 28, No. 2, Spring 1993, p. 235 .
3 This question, and the conviction that the world is entering upon a qualitatively new industrial–technological era, was at the heart of Ghita Ionescu’s work throughout his academic career, from his understanding of change in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, through Centripetal Politics, London, Hart–Davis, MacGibbon, 1975, especially ch. 1 and his interest in Saint–Simon, to his article on the information revolution in Government and Opposition in 1993, op. cit.
4 Robertson, Roland., Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, London and Thousand Oaks, Cal., Sage, 1992 .
5 Douglas, Ian R., ‘Globalization, Governance and the Assembly of Forces: J’Accuse’, paper presented to a Workshop on Globalization and Governance, Indianapolis, Indiana, 11–13 10 1996 .
6 On structures and political structuration, see Cerny, P. G., The Changing Architecture of Politics: Structure, Agency and the Future of the State, London and Thousand Oaks, Sage, 1990 , chs 1–4.
7 See Kuhn, Thomas., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1962 , for the notion of paradigms.
8 Cerny, P. G., ‘Globalization and Other Stories: The Search for a New Paradigm for International Relations’, International Journal, Vol. LI, No. 4, Autumn 1996, pp. 617–637 .
9 Levi, Margaret., ‘The Predatory Theory of Rule’, Politics & Society, Vol. 10, No. 4, Autumn 1981, pp. 431–65.
10 Tönnies, Ferdinand, Community and Association, East Lansing, MI, Michigan State University Press, 1957 (originally published as Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, 1887).
11 See Auspitz, Josiah Lee, ‘Individuality, Civility, and Theory: The Philosophical Imagination of Michael Oakeshott’, Political Theory, Vol 4, no. 3, 08 1976, pp. 361–352; also Oakeshott, Michael., ‘On Misunderstanding Human Conduct: A Reply to my Critics’, in ibid., pp. 353–67.
12 Hirst, Paul. and Thompson, Grahame., Globalization in Question: The International Political Economy and the Possibilities of Governance, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1995 ; Boyer, Robert. and Drache, Daniel, (eds), States Against Markets: The Limits of Globalization, London, Routledge, 1996 ; Zysman, John., ‘The Myth of a “Global” Economy: Enduring National Foundations and Emerging Regional Realities’, New Political Economy, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1996, pp. 157–84.
13 Radice, Hugo., ‘The Question of Globalization: A Review of Hirst and Thompson’, presented at the annual meeting of the Conference of Socialist Economists, Newcastle–upon–Tyne, 12–14 07 1996 .
14 Minc, Alain., Le nouveau Moyen Age, Paris, Gallimard, 1993 ; Kaplan, Robert D., ‘The Coming Anarchy’, The Atlantic Monthly, 02 1994, pp. 44–76 ; Cronin, Bruce. and Lepgold, Joseph., ‘A New Medievalism? Conflicting International Authorities and Competing Loyalties in the Twenty–First Century’, paper presented to the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Chicago, 23–27 02 1995 ; Kobrin, Stephen., ‘Back to the Future: Neomedievalism and the Post–Modern World Economy’, paper presented to the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, San Diego, CA, 17–21 04 1996 .
15 Ruggie, John Gerard, Caporaso, James A., Weber, Steve and Kahier, Miles., Symposium: Multilateralism, special section in International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 3, Summer 1992, pp. 561–708 .
16 Keohane, Robert O. and Milner, Helen, (eds), Internationalization and Domestic Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996
17 Granovetter, Mark., ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 4, 11 1985, pp. 50–82 ; Granovetter, , ‘Economic Institutions as Social Constructions: A Framework for Analysis’, Acta Sociologica, No. 35, 1992, pp. 3–11 .
18 A ‘quango’, or quasi–autonomous non–governmental organization, is an authoritative body licensed by the state to carry out public regulatory functions but made up of appointed representatives of private sector interests. It is probably best considered to be a variant of state corporatism.
19 Ruggie, John Gerard, ‘International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Post–War Order’, International Organization, Vol. 36, No. 4, Autumn 1982, pp. 379–415 ; Ruggie here also uses the word liberalism’in its American meaning.
20 O’Connor, James, The Fiscal Crisis of the State, New York, St Martinx2019;s Press, 1973 .
21 Block, Fred L., The Origins of International Economic Disorder: A Study of United States Monetary Policy from World War II to the Present, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1977; Susan Strange., Casino Capitalism, Oxford, Blackwell, 1986.
22 Cerny, P. G., ‘The Infrastructure of the Infrastructure? Toward “Embedded Financial Orthodoxy” in the International Political Economy’, in Palan, Ronen P. and Gills, Barry, (eds), Transcending the State–Global Divide: A Neostructuralist Agenda in International Relations, Boulder, Co., Lynne Reinner, 1994, pp. 223–49.
23 The distinction between comparative advantage and competitive advantage is a central theme of Zysman, John. and Tyson, Laura d’Andrea, (eds), American Industry in International Competition, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1983 .
24 Estrin, Saul. and Holmes, Peter., French Planning in Theory and Practice, London, Allen & Unwin, 1982 .
25 Lindblom, Charles E., Politics and Markets: The World’s Political–Economic Systems, New York, Basic Books, 1977 .
26 Osborne, David. and Gaebler, Ted., Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, From Schoolhouse to Statehouse, City Hall to the Pentagon, Reading, Mass., Addison–Wesley, 1992 .
27 Frieden, Jeffry A., ‘Invested Interests: The Politics of National Economic Policies in a World of Global Finance’, International Organization, Vol. 45, No. 4, Autumn 1991, pp. 425–51.
28 Zysman, John., Governments, Markets, and Growth: Financial Systems and the Politics of Industrial Change, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1983 ; Johnson, Chalmers., M.I.T.L and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975, Stanford, Cal., Stanford University Press, 1982 .
30 Zysman, John., ‘The Myth of the “Global” Economy’: Enduring National Foundations and Emerging Regional Realities’, New Political Economy, Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer 1996, pp. 157–84.
31 Crozier, Michel. and Friedberg, Erhard., L’acteur et le systeme: les contraintes de l’action collective, Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1977 .
32 Cerny, P. G., ‘Dynamics of Financial Globalization: Technology, Market Structure, and Policy Response’, Policy Sciences, Vol. Policy Sciences, No. 4, 11 1994, pp. 319–42.
33 Goodman, John B. and Pauly, Louis W., ‘The Obsolescence of Capital Controls? Economic Management in an Age of Global Markets’, World Politics, Vol. 46, No. 4, 10 1993, pp. 50–82 ; Kaplan, Ethan B., Governing the Global Economy: International Finance and the State, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1994 ; Helleiner, Eric N., ‘Post–Globalization: Is the Financial Liberalization Trend Likely to be Reversed?’, in Boyer, Robert. and Drache, Daniel (eds), States Against Markets: The Limits of Globalization, London, Routledge, 1996 ; Cerny, P. G., ‘International Finance and the Erosion of State Policy Capacity’, in Gummett, Philip (ed.), Globalization and Public Policy, Cheltenham, Glos., and Brookfield, VT, Elgar, 1996, pp. 83–104 .
34 Andrews, David M., ‘Capital Mobility and State Autonomy: Toward a Structural Theory of International Monetary Relations’, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 2, 06 1994, pp. 193–218 .
35 Dunleavy, Patrick., ‘The Globalization of Public Services Production: Can Government Be “Best in World”?’, Public Policy and Administration, Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 36–64 .
36 Machin, Howard. and Wright, Vincent (eds), Economic Policy and Policy Making Under the Mitterrand Presidency, 1981–84, London, Pinter, 1985 .
37 Haas, Peter (ed.), Knowledge, Power, and International Policy Coordination, special issue of International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 1, Winter 1992 ; cf. Stone, Diane, Capturing the Political Imagination: Think–Tanks and the Policy Process, London, Frank Cass, 1996 .
38 Stopford, John. and Strange, Susan., Rival States, Rival Firms: Competition for World Market Shares, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991 .
39 Reich, Robert B., The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st–Century Capitalism, New York, Knopf, 1991
40 Singer, Max. and Wildavsky, Aaron., The Real World Order: Zones of Peace/Zones of Turmoil, Chatham, NJ, Chatham House Publishers, 1993 .
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