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Characterization of the Chemical Nature of the Black Ink in the Manuscript of The Gospel of Jesus's Wife through Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

  • James T. Yardley (a1) and Alexis Hagadorn (a2)
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18 Clark Robin J. H., “Pigment Identification on Medieval Manuscripts by Raman Microscopy,” Journal of Molecular Structure 347 (1995) 417–27; idem, “Pigment Identification by Spectroscopic Means: An Arts/Science Interface,” Comptes Rendus Chimie 5 (2002) 7–20; Smith Gregory D. and Clark Robin J. H., “Raman Microscopy in Archaeological Science,” Journal of Archaeological Science 31 (2004) 1137–60; Burgio Lucia, Clark Robin J. H., and Hark Richard R., “Raman Microscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Pigments on Medieval and Renaissance Italian Manuscript Cuttings,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (2010) 5726–31.

19 Bell Ian M., Clark Robin J. H., and Gibbs Peter J., “Raman Spectroscopic Library of Natural and Synthetic Pigments (pre- Approximately 1850 AD),” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 53 (1997) 2159–79; Burgio Lucia and Clark Robin J. H., “Library of FT-Raman Spectra of Pigments, Minerals, Pigment Media and Varnishes, and Supplement to Existing Library of Raman Spectra of Pigments with Visible Excitation,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 57 (2001) 1491–521.

20 Tomasini Eugenia P.et al., “Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon-Based Black Pigments,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43 (2012) 1671–75.

21 Lee Alana S., Mahon Peter J., and Creagh Dudley C., “Raman Analysis of Iron Gall Inks on Parchment,” Vibrational Spectroscopy 41 (2006) 170–75; Lee Alana S., Otieno-Alego Vincent, and Creagh Dudley C., “Identification of Iron-Gall Inks with Near-Infrared Raman Microspectroscopy,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39 (2008) 1079–84; Bicchieri Marinaet al., “All That is Iron-Ink is Not Always Iron-Gall!,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39 (2008) 1074–78; Bicchieri Marinaet al., “Non-Destructive Spectroscopic Investigation on Historic Yemenite Scriptorial Fragments: Evidence of Different Degradation and Recipes for Iron Tannic Inks,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013) 2713–21.

22 David A. Rosalieet al., “Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Ancient Egyptian Pigments,” Archaeometry 43 (2001) 461–73.

23 Slavov Lubomiret al., “Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Ferrofluids,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 322 (2010) 1904–11.

24 Bikiaris Dimitriset al., “Ochre-Differentiation through Micro-Raman and Micro-FTIR Spectroscopies: Application on Wall Paintings at Meteora and Mount Athos, Greece,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 56 (2000) 318.

25 Abbott Laurence C.et al.Resonance Raman and UV-Visible Spectroscopy of Black Dyes on Textiles,” Forensic Science International 202 (2010) 5463; Geiman Irinaet al.Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to the Analysis of Synthetic Dyes Found in Ballpoint Pen Inks,” Journal of Forensic Sciences 54 (2009) 947–52; Littleford Racheal E.et al., “Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering of Black Inkjet Dyes in Solution and in Situ Printed onto Paper,” Applied Spectroscopy 57 (2003) 977–83; Womack James D., Vickers Thomas J., and Mann Charles K., “Determination of Azo Dyes by Resonance-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” Applied Spectroscopy 41 (1987) 117–19.

26 We thank Michael Ryan, head of the Columbia Rare Book and Manuscript Library, for making these papyri available.

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Harvard Theological Review
  • ISSN: 0017-8160
  • EISSN: 1475-4517
  • URL: /core/journals/harvard-theological-review
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