Skip to main content Accessibility help

Expanding the breadth of Medicare: learning from Australia

  • Stephen Duckett (a1)


The design of Australia’s Medicare programme was based on the Canadian scheme, adapted somewhat to take account of differences in the constitutional division of powers in the two countries and differences in history. The key elements are very similar: access to hospital services without charge being the core similarity, universal coverage for necessary medical services, albeit with a variable co-payment in Australia, the other. But there are significant differences between the two countries in health programmes – whether or not they are labelled as ‘Medicare’. This paper discusses four areas where Canada could potentially learn from Australia in a positive way. First, Australia has had a national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme for almost 70 years. Second, there have been hesitant extensions to Australia’s Medicare to address the increasing prevalence of people with chronic conditions – extensions which include some payments for allied health professionals, ‘care coordination’ payments, and exploration of ‘health care homes’. Third, Australia has a much more extensive system of support for older people to live in their homes or to move into supported residential care. Fourth, Australia has gone further in driving efficiency in the hospital sector than has Canada. Finally, the paper examines aspects of the Australian health care system that Canada should avoid, including the very high level of out-of-pocket costs, and the role of private acute inpatient provision.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Expanding the breadth of Medicare: learning from Australia
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Expanding the breadth of Medicare: learning from Australia
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Expanding the breadth of Medicare: learning from Australia
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Correspondence to: Stephen Duckett, Director, Health Program, Grattan Institute, 8 Malvina Place, Carlton 3053, Victoria, Australia. Email:


Hide All
Acosta, A., Ciapponi, A., Aaserud, M., Vietto, V., Austvoll-Dahlgren, A., Kösters, J. P., Vacca, C., Machado, M., Diaz Ayala, D. H. and Oxman, A. D. (2014), ‘Pharmaceutical policies: effects of reference pricing, other pricing, and purchasing policies’, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014(10): 1–116.
Amoroso, C., Harris, M. F., Ampt, A., Laws, R. A., McKenzie, S., Williams, A. M., Jayasinghe, U. W., Zwar, N. A. and Davies, G. P. (2009), ‘The 45 year old health check: feasibility and impact on practices and patient behaviour’, Australian Family Physician, 38(5): 358.
Anderson, I., Robson, B., Connolly, M., Al-Yaman, F., Bjertness, E., King, A., Tynan, M., Madden, R., Bang, A., Coimbra, C. E. A. Jr, Pesantes, M. A., Amigo, H., Andronov, S., Armien, B., Obando, D. A., Axelsson, P., Bhatti, Z. S., Bhutta, Z. A., Bjerregaard, P., Bjertness, M. B., Briceno-Leon, R., Broderstad, A. R., Bustos, P., Chongsuvivatwong, V., Chu, J., Deji, , Gouda, J., Harikumar, R., Htay, T. T., Htet, A. S., Izugbara, C., Kamaka, M., King, M., Kodavanti, M. R., Lara, M., Laxmaiah, A., Lema, C., Taborda, A. M. L., Liabsuetrakul, T., Lobanov, A., Melhus, M., Meshram, I., Miranda, J. J., Mu, T. T., Nagalla, B., Nimmathota, A., Popov, A. I., Poveda, A. M. P., Ram, F., Reich, H., Santos, R. V., Sein, A. A., Shekhar, C., Sherpa, L. Y., Skold, P., Tano, S., Tanywe, A., Ugwu, C., Ugwu, F., Vapattanawong, P., Wan, X., Welch, J. R., Yang, G., Yang, Z. and Yap, L. (2016), ‘Indigenous and tribal peoples’ health (The Lancet–Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study’, The Lancet, 388(10040): 131157.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016), Patient Experiences in Australia: Summary of Findings, 2015-16 (4839.0), Canberra: ABS.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011), ‘Comparing life expectancy of indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States – conceptual, methodological and data issues’. Cat. no. IHW 47, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014), ‘Patterns in use of aged care 2002–03 to 2010–11’. Data Linkage Series. Cat no. CSI 20, AIHW, Canberra.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016a), ‘Admitted patient care 2014–15: Australian hospital statistics’. Cat no. HSE 172, AIHW, Canberra.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016b), ‘Health expenditure Australia 2014-5’. Cat no. HWE 67, AIHW, Canberra.
Baldwin, R., Chenoweth, L. and Rama, M. D. (2015a), ‘Residential aged care policy in Australia – are we learning from evidence?’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 74(2): 128141.
Baldwin, R., Chenoweth, L., Rama, M. D. and Liu, Z. (2015b), ‘Quality failures in residential aged care in Australia: the relationship between structural factors and regulation imposed sanctions’, Australasian Journal on Ageing, 34(4): E7E12.
Beilby, J. (2007), ‘Primary care reform using a layered approach to the Medicare Benefits Scheme: unpredictable and unmeasured’, Medical Journal of Australia, 187(2): 6971.
Beilby, J., Wutzke, S., Bowman, J., Mackson, J. and Weekes, L. (2006), ‘Evaluation of a national quality use of medicines service in Australia: an evolving model’, Journal of Evalutation in Clinical Practice, 12(2): 202217.
Birkett, D. J., Mitchell, A. S. and McManus, P. (2001), ‘A cost-effectiveness approach to drug subsidy and pricing in Australia’, Health Affairs, 20(3): 104114.
Blakeman, T. M., Harris, M. F., Comino, E. J. and Zwar, N. A. (2001), ‘Evaluating general practitioners’ views about the implementation of the Enhanced Primary Care Medicare items’, Medical Journal of Australia, 175: 9598.
Boothe, K. (2012), ‘How the pace of change affects the scope of reform: pharmaceutical insurance in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 37(5): 779814.
Buckley, N. J., Cuff, K., Hurley, J., McLeod, L., Mestelman, S. and Cameron, D. (2012), ‘An experimental investigation of mixed systems of public and private health care finance’, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 84(3): 713729.
Bulfone, L., Younie, S. and Carter, R. (2009), ‘Health technology assessment: reflections from the Antipodes’, Value in Health, 12(Supplement 2): S28S38.
Cant, R. and Aroni, R. (2007), ‘Melbourne dietitians’ experience of Medicare policy on allied health services (strengthening Medicare; enhanced primary care) in the first 12 months’, Nutrition & Dietetics, 64(1): 4349.
Cheng, T. C. and Vahid, F. (2011), ‘Demand for hospital care and private health insurance in a mixed public-private system: empirical evidence using a simultaneous equation modeling approach’, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC.
Cheng, T. C., Joyce, C. M. and Scott, A. (2013), ‘An empirical analysis of public and private medical practice in Australia’, Health Policy, 111(1): 4351.
Cheng, T. C., Haisken-DeNew, J. P. and Yong, J. (2015), ‘Cream skimming and hospital transfers in a mixed public-private system’, Social Science & Medicine, 132: 156164.
Clement, F. M., Harris, A., Li, J. J., Yong, K., Lee, K. M. and Manns, B. J. (2009), ‘Using Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to make drug coverage decisions: a comparison of Britain, Australia, and Canada’, JAMA, 302(13): 14371443.
Coleman, M. P., Forman, D., Bryant, H., Butler, J., Rachet, B., Maringe, C., Nur, U., Tracey, E., Coory, M., Hatcher, J., McGahan, C. E., Turner, D., Marrett, L., Gjerstorff, M. L., Johannesen, T. B., Adolfsson, J., Lambe, M., Lawrence, G., Meechan, D., Morris, E. J., Middleton, R., Steward, J. and Richards, M. A. (2011), ‘Cancer survival in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, 1995-2007 (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): an analysis of population-based cancer registry data’, The Lancet, 377(9760): 127138.
Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada (Chair: Roy Romanow) (2002), ‘Building on values: the future of health care in Canada’. Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada.
Costain, K. (2017), ‘Decontextualized rights: concerns regarding the Bedford section 7 framework in the health care context of the Cambie surgery center trial’, Appeal: Review of Current Law & Law Reform, 22: 323.
Council of Australian Governments (2011), National Health Reform Agreement, Canberra: COAG.
Council of Australian Governments (2016), Heads of Agreement Between the Commonwealth and the States and Territories on Public Hospital Funding, Canberra: COAG.
Crichton, A. (1995), ‘Health care in Canada and Australia: the development of a comparative analytical framework’, Australian-Canadian Studies, 13(2): 5971.
Crichton, A. (1998), Children of a Common Mother: A Comparative Analysis of the Development of the Australian and Canadian Health Care Systems to 1995, Australian Studies in Health Service Administration, Volume 83, Kensington: School of Health Services Management, University of New South Wales.
Cromwell, J., Trisolini, M. G., Pope, G. C., Mitchell, J. B. and Greenwald, L. M. (eds) (2011), Pay for Performance in Health Care: Methods and Approaches, Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press.
de Bruin, S. R., Caroline, A. B. and Struijs, J. N. (2011), ‘Pay-for-performance in disease management: a systematic review of the literature’, BMC Health Services Research, 11(1): 272.
Department of Health (2016), Health Care Homes – Patient-Centred, Co-Ordinated, Flexible: Information Booklet, Canberra: The Department of Health.
Dixon, J. (1977), Australia's Policy Towards the Aged: 1890-1972, Canberra Series in Administrative Studies, Volume 3, Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education.
Donelan, K., Blendon, R. J., Schoen, C., Davis, K. and Binns, K. (1999), ‘The cost of health system change: public discontent in five nations’, Health Affairs, 18(3): 206216.
Duckett, S. (1983), ‘Recent developments in Canadian health services: lessons for Australia’, Australian Quarterly, 55(1): 5465.
Duckett, S. (1995), ‘Hospital payment arrangements to encourage efficiency: the case of Victoria, Australia’, Health Policy, 34: 113134.
Duckett, S. (2005), ‘Private care and public waiting’, Australian Health Review, 29(1): 8793.
Duckett, S. (2014), ‘Australia’, in K. Fierlbeck and H. A. Palley (eds), Comparative Health Care Federalism: Competition and Collaboration in Multistate Systems, Farnham, England: Ashgate, 123–138.
Duckett, S. (2015), ‘Australia’, in G. P. Marchildon and L. Di Matteo (eds), Bending the Cost Curve in Health Care, Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 381410.
Duckett, S. (2017), ‘Don’t be fooled, the Medicare Guarantee Fund provides no real guarantee’. The Conversation 12 May, 2017, [12 December 2017].
Duckett, S. and Breadon, P. (2014), ‘Out-of-Pocket Costs: Hitting the Most Vulnerable Hardest’, Grattan Institute submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Community Affairs Inquiry into the out-of-pocket costs in Australian healthcare, Grattan Institute, Melbourne, VIC.
Duckett, S. and Willcox, S. (2015), The Australian Health Care System, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Duckett, S. and Banerjee, P. (2017), Pricing Prescriptions: Savings From Benchmarking Internationally and With Other Drugs, Melbourne, VIC: Grattan Institute.
Duckett, S., Breadon, P., Weidmann, B. and Nicola, I. (2014), Controlling Costly Care: A Billion-Dollar Hospital Opportunity, Melbourne, VIC: Grattan Institute.
Dwyer, J. M. and Duckett, S. J. (2016), ‘Restructuring primary health care in Australia’, The Medical Journal of Australia, 205(10): 435436.
Dwyer, J. M., Lavoie, J., O’Donnell, K., Marlina, U. and Sullivan, P. (2011), ‘Contracting for Indigenous health care: towards mutual accountability’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 70(1): 3446.
Eijkenaar, F. (2012), ‘Pay for performance in health care’, Medical Care Research and Review, 69(3): 251276.
Eijkenaar, F., Emmert, M., Scheppach, M. and Schöffski, O. (2013), ‘Effects of pay for performance in health care: a systematic review of systematic reviews’, Health Policy, 110(2–3): 115130.
Eldridge, D. S., Onur, I. and Velamuri, M. (2017), ‘The impact of private hospital insurance on the utilization of hospital care in Australia’, Applied Economics, 49(1): 7895.
Elson, S. (2009), ‘Regionalization of health care from a political and structural perspective’, Healthcare Management Forum, 22(1): 611.
Fine, M. (1999), ‘Coordinating health, extended care, and community support services: reforming aged care in Australia’, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 11(1): 6790.
Foster, M. M., Mitchell, G., Haines, T., Tweedy, S., Cornwell, P. and Fleming, J. (2008), ‘Does enhanced primary care enhance primary care? Policy-induced dilemmas for allied health professionals’, Medical Journal of Australia, 188(1): 2932.
Freed, G. L. and Allen, A. R. (2017), ‘Variation in outpatient consultant physician fees in Australia by specialty and state and territory’, Medical Journal of Australia, 206(4): 176180.
Gagnon, M.-A. (2010), ‘The economic case for universal pharmacare: costs and benefits of publicly funded drug coverage for all Canadians Ottawa and Montreal’, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives and Institut de recherche et d’informations socio-économiques.
Gargett, S. (2010), ‘The introduction of a targeted user-pays approach to funding high-level residential aged care in Australia: an empirical investigation of the impact on price’, Health Economics, Policy and Law, 5(4): 481508.
George, B., Harris, A. and Mitchell, A. (2001), ‘Cost-effectiveness analysis and the consistency of decision making: evidence from pharmaceutical reimbursement in Australia (1991 to 1996)’, PharmacoEconomics, 19(11): 11031109.
Gibson, D. (1996), ‘Reforming aged care in Australia: change and consequence’, Journal of Social Policy, 25(2): 157179.
Gibson, D. (1998), Aged Care: Old Policies, New Problems, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillespie, J. A. (1991), The Price of Health: Australian Governments and Medical Politics 1910–1960, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Glazier, R. H., Kopp, A., Schultz, S. E., Kiran, T. and Henry, D. A. (2012), ‘All the right intentions but few of the desired results: lessons on access to primary care from Ontario’s patient enrolment models’, Healthcare Quarterly, 15(3): 1721.
Gleeson, M. (1989), ‘Organizational change in Australian Catholic hospitals’. PhD thesis, Kensington: University of New South Wales.
Greene, J. (2013), ‘An examination of pay-for-performance in general practice in Australia’, Health Services Research, 48(4): 14151432.
Gunn, J. (2016), ‘Time for better chronic disease management in primary care’. The Conversation, 31 March, [12 December 2017].
Haines, T. P., Foster, M. M., Cornwell, P., Fleming, J., Tweedy, S., Hart, A. and Mitchell, G. (2010), ‘Impact of enhanced primary care on equitable access to and economic efficiency of allied health services: a qualitative investigation’, Australian Health Review, 34(1): 3035.
Hall, J., De Abreu Lourenco, R. and Viney, R. (1999), ‘Carrots and sticks – the fall and fall of private health insurance in Australia’, Health Economics, 8(8): 653660.
Hamilton, S. D. and Menezes, F. M. (2011), ‘Embedded incentives in the funding arrangements for residential aged care in Australia’, Economic Papers, 30(3): 326340.
Hamirudin, A. H., Ghosh, A., Charlton, K., Bonney, A. and Walton, K. (2015), ‘Trends in uptake of the 75+ health assessment in Australia: a decade of evaluation’, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 21(4): 423428.
Harris, M. F. and Zwar, N. A. (2007), ‘Care of patients with chronic disease: the challenge for general practice’, Medical Journal of Australia, 187(2): 104107.
Harris, M. F., Blakeman, T. M. and Zwar, N. A. (2002), ‘Evaluating general practitioners’ views on the enhanced primary care items for care planning and case conferencing. A one year follow up’, Australian Family Physician, 31(6): 582.
Hirdes, J. P. (2001), ‘Long-term care funding in Canada: a policy mosaic’, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 13(2/3): 6981.
House of Representatives. Standing Committee on Health and Ageing (2006), The Blame Game: Report on the Inquiry into Health Funding, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Howard, M., Chalifoux, M. and Tanuseputro, P. (2016), ‘Does primary care model effect healthcare at the end of life? A population-based retrospective cohort study’, Journal of Palliative Medicine, 20(4): 344351.
Hua, X., Erreygers, G., Chalmers, J., Laba, T.-L. and Clarke, P. (2017), ‘Using administrative data to look at changes in the level and distribution of out-of-pocket medical expenditure: an example using Medicare data from Australia’, Health Policy, 121(4): 426433.
Hunter, T. (1980), ‘Pressure groups and the Australian political process: the case of the Australian Medical Association’, Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 18(2): 190206.
Hutchison, B. and Glazier, R. (2013), ‘Ontario’s primary care reforms have transformed the local care landscape, but a plan is needed for ongoing improvement’, Health Affairs, 32(4): 695703.
Independent Hospital Pricing Authority (2015), The Pricing Framework for Australian Public Hospital Services 2016-17, Sydney: IHPA.
Independent Hospital Pricing Authority (2016), Consultation Paper on the Pricing Framework for Australian Public Hospital Services 2017-18, Sydney: IHPA.
Jeon, Y.-H. and Kendig, H. (2017), ‘Care and Support for Older People’, in K. O’Loughlin, C. Browning and H. Kendig (eds), Ageing in Australia: Challenges and Opportunities, New York: Springer, 239–259.
Johar, M., Mu, C., Van Gool, K. and Wong, C. Y. (2017), ‘Bleeding hearts, profiteers, or both: specialist physician fees in an unregulated market’, Health Economics, 26(4): 528535.
Karmel, R., Gibson, D., Anderson, P., Wells, Y. and Duckett, S. (2012), ‘Care trajectories through community and residential aged care services: disease effects’, Ageing and Society, 32(8): 14281445.
Kay, A. (2017), ‘Policy failures, policy learning and institutional change: the case of Australian health insurance policy change’, Policy & Politics, 45(1): 87101.
Kettlewell, N., Stavrunova, O. and Yerokhin, O. (2018), ‘Premium subsidies and demand for private health insurance: results from a regression discontinuity design’, Applied Economics Letters, 25(2): 96101.
Kewley, T. H. (1973), Social Security in Australia 1900-72, 2nd edn, Sydney: Sydney University Press.
Kiran, T., Kopp, A. and Glazier, R. H. (2016), ‘Those left behind from voluntary medical home reforms in Ontario, Canada’, The Annals of Family Medicine, 14(6): 517525.
Laberge, M., Wodchis, W. P., Barnsley, J. and Laporte, A. (2017), ‘Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions across primary care models in Ontario, Canada’, Social Science & Medicine, 181: 2433.
Lavergne, M. R., Law, M. R., Peterson, S., Garrison, S., Hurley, J., Cheng, L. and McGrail, K. (2016), ‘A population-based analysis of incentive payments to primary care physicians for the care of patients with complex disease’, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 188(15): E375E383.
Lavoie, J., Boulton, A. and Dwyer, J. (2010), ‘Analysing contractual environments: lessons from Indigenous health in Canada, Australia and New Zealand’, Public Administration, 88(3): 665679.
Lavoie, J. G. (2004), ‘Governed by contracts: the development of indigenous primary health services in Canada, Australia and New Zealand’, International Journal of Indigenous Health, 1(1): 624.
Mackenzie, L. and Clemson, L. (2014), ‘Can chronic disease management plans including occupational therapy and physiotherapy services contribute to reducing falls risk in older people?’, Australian Family Physician, 43(4): 211215.
Manzano-Santaella, A. (2010a), ‘Disentangling the impact of multiple innovations to reduce delayed hospital discharges’, Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 15(1): 4146.
Manzano-Santaella, A. (2010b), ‘From bed-blocking to delayed discharges: precursors and interpretations of a contested concept’, Health Services Management Research, 23(3): 121127.
Marchildon, G. P. and Hutchison, B. (2016), ‘Primary care in Ontario, Canada: new proposals after 15 years of reform’, Health Policy, 120(7): 732738.
Mathews, R. L. and Jay, W. R. C. (1972), Federal Finance: Australian Fiscal Federalism from Federation to McMahon, 2nd edn, Melbourne: Thomas Nelson.
McDonald, F. and Duckett, S. (2017), ‘Regulation, private health insurance and the Australian health system’. McGill Law Journal, 11(1): S31S60.
McMillan, J. (1992), Commonwealth Constitutional Power Over Health, Canberra: Consumers’ Health Forum of Australia.
Menz, H. B. (2009), ‘Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare enhanced primary care program, 2004-2008’, Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2(1): 30.
Morgan, S., McMahon, M., Mitton, C., Roughead, E., Kirk, R., Kanavos, P. and Menon, D. (2006), ‘Centralized drug review processes in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom’, Drug Review, 25(2): 337347.
Morgan, S. G. and Boothe, K. (2016), ‘Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada: long-promised yet undelivered’, Healthcare Management Forum, 29(6): 247254.
Morgan, S. G., Gagnon, M.-A., Mintzes, B. and Lexchin, J. (2016), ‘A better prescription: advice for a national strategy on pharmaceutical policy in Canada’, Healthcare Policy, 12(1): 1836.
Mullins, C. D., Ndiritu, E. M., Yoder, D. M., Shaya, F. T. and Taylor, T. A. (2003), ‘Impact of the fourth hurdle on the international pharmaceutical industry’, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 3(2): 169177.
O’Brady, S., Gagnon, M.-A. and Cassels, A. (2015), ‘Reforming private drug coverage in Canada: inefficient drug benefit design and the barriers to change in unionized settings’, Health Policy, 119(2): 224231.
Ong, R. (2016), ‘Financing Aged Care: The Role of Housing Wealth and Intergenerational Relationships’, in H. Kendig, P. F. McDonald and J. Piggott (eds), Population Ageing and Australia’s Future, Acton, ACT: ANU Press, 281–301.
Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M. M., Sarnak, D. O. and Schneider, E. C. (2016), ‘In new survey of eleven countries, US adults still struggle with access to and affordability of health care’, Health Affairs, 35(12): 23272336.
Palangkaraya, A. and Yong, J. (2005), ‘Effects of recent carrot-and-stick policy initiatives on private health insurance coverage in Australia’, Economic Record, 81(254): 262272.
PBS Information Management Section, Pharmaceutical Policy Branch (2016), ‘Expenditure and prescriptions twelve months to 30 June 2016’, Canberra: Department of Health.
Philippon, D. J. and Braithwaite, J. (2008), ‘Health system organization and governance in Canada and Australia: a comparison of historical developments, recent policy changes and future implications’, Healthcare Policy, 4(1): e168e186.
Price, K., Beilby, J., McElroy, H., Wilkinson, D., Best, J., Morey, S. and Mott, K. (2002), ‘Uptake of health assessments, care plans and case conferences by general practitioners through the enhanced primary care program between November 1999 and October 2001’, Australian Health Review, 25(4): 1.
Productivity Commission (2011), Caring for Older Australians, Canberra: Productivity Commission.
Rhee, J. J., Zwar, N. A. and Kemp, L. A. (2012), ‘Uptake and implementation of advance care planning in Australia: findings of key informant interviews’, Australian Health Review, 36(1): 98104.
Robson, J., Hull, S., Mathur, R. and Boomla, K. (2014), ‘Improving cardiovascular disease using managed care networks in general practice’, British Journal of General Practice, 64(622): e268e274.
Rosen, B. (2018), ‘Expanding Canadian Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit: Possible lessons from Israel’. Health Economics, Policy and Law 2017 (in press), doi:10.1017/S174413311700041X.
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2015), Vision for General Practice and a Sustainable Healthcare System, Melbourne: RACGP.
Rudoler, D., Deber, R., Barnsley, J., Glazier, R. H., Dass, A. R. and Laporte, A. (2015), ‘Paying for primary care: the factors associated with physician self-selection into payment models’, Health Economics, 24(9): 12291242.
Schoen, C., Davis, K., DesRoches, C., Donelan, K. and Blendon, R. (2000), ‘Health insurance markets and income inequality: findings from an international health policy survey’, Health Policy, 51: 6785.
Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M. Pierson, R. and Applebaum, S. (2011), ‘New 2011 survey of patients with complex care needs in eleven countries finds that care is often poorly coordinated’, Health Affairs, 30(12): 24372448.
Schwarzer, R., Rochau, U., Saverno, K., Jahn, B., Bornschein, B., Muehlberger, N., Flatscher-Thoeni, M., Schnell-Inderst, P., Sroczynski, G., Lackner, M., Schall, I., Hebborn, A., Pugner, K., Fehervary, A., Brixner, D. and Siebert, U. (2015), ‘Systematic overview of cost–effectiveness thresholds in ten countries across four continents’, Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 4(5): 485504.
Scott, A., Schurer, S., Jensen, P. H. and Sivey, P. (2009), ‘The effects of an incentive program on quality of care in diabetes management’, Health Economics, 18(9): 10911108.
Scott, A., Sivey, P., Ouakrim, D. A., Willenberg, L., Naccarella, L., Furler, J. and Young, D. (2011), ‘The effect of financial incentives on the quality of health care provided by primary care physicians’. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): 1–59.
Scotton, R. B. and Macdonald, C. R. (1993), The Making of Medibank Volume 76 Sydney: School of Health Services Management, University of NSW.
Senate. Standing Committee on Social Affairs Science Technology (Chair: Senator Michael Kirby) (2002), ‘The health of Canadians: the federal role’, Final report on the State of the Health Care System in Canada, Senate of Canada, Ottawa.
Sloan, C. (1995), A History of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 1947-1992, Canberra: Commonweath Department of Human Services and Health.
Smith, A. J. and McGettigan, P. (2000), ‘Quality use of medicines in the community: the Australian experience’, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 50(6): 515519.
Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision (SCRCSSP) (2017), Report on Government Services 2017, Canberra: Productivity Commission.
Struckmann, V., Quentin, W., Busse, R. and van Ginneken, E. (2016), How to strengthen financing mechanisms to promote care for people with multimorbidity in Europe? Policy Brief, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Utecht.
Suchowersky, A., Suchowersky, O. and Duckett, S. (2012), ‘Can Alberta’s primary care networks provide any lessons for Medicare Locals?’, Medical Journal of Australia, 196(1): 2728.
Sunderland, N., Harris, P., Johnstone, K., Del Fabbro, L. and Kendall, E. (2015), ‘Exploring health promotion practitioners’ experiences of moral distress in Canada and Australia’, Global Health Promotion, 22(1): 3245.
Swerissen, H. and Duckett, S. (2007), ‘Federalism and Health: Negotiating the Problems of “Fiscal Squabbles”, “Waiting” and “Waste”’, in S. Barraclough and H. Gardner (eds), Analysing Australian Health Policy: A Problem Orientated Approach, Marrickville: Elsevier, 69–82.
Swerissen, H. and Duckett, S. (2016), Chronic Failure in Primary Care, Melbourne, VIC: Grattan Institute.
Swerissen, H. and Duckett, S. (2017), Building Better Foundations for Primary Care, Melbourne, VIC: Grattan Institute.
Tanenbaum, S. J. (2009), ‘Pay for performance in Medicare: evidentiary irony and the politics of value’, Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law, 34(5): 717746.
Tempier, R., Meadows, G. N., Vasiliadis, H.-M., Mosier, K. E., Lesage, A., Stiller, A., Graham, A. and Lepnurm, M. (2009), ‘Mental disorders and mental health care in Canada and Australia: comparative epidemiological findings’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 44(1): 63.
Tenbensel, T., Dwyer, J. and Lavoie, J. (2014), ‘How not to kill the golden goose: reconceptualizing accountability environments of third-sector organizations’, Public Management Review, 16(7): 925944.
Tsiachristas, A., Dikkers, C., Boland, M. R. S. and Rutten-van Mölken, M. P. M. H. (2013), ‘Exploring payment schemes used to promote integrated chronic care in Europe’, Health Policy, 113(3): 296304.
Varabyova, Y. and Schreyögg, J. (2013), ‘International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches’, Health Policy, 112(1–2): 7079.
Weekes, L. M., Mackson, J. M., Fitzgerald, M. and Phillips, S. R. (2005), ‘National prescribing service: creating an implementation arm for national medicines policy’, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 59(1): 112116.
Wheelwright, K. (1995), ‘Commonwealth and state powers in health: a constitutional diagnosis’, Monash University Law Review, 21(1): 5283.
Wilkinson, D., McElroy, H., Beilby, J., Mott, K., Price, K., Morey, S. and Best, J. (2002a), ‘Uptake of health assessments, care plans and case conferences by general practitioners through the Enhanced Primary Care program between November 1999 and October 2001’, Australian Health Review, 25(4): 111.
Wilkinson, D., McElroy, H., Beilby, J., Mott, K., Price, K., Morey, S. and Best, J. (2002b), ‘Characteristics of general practitioners that provided health assessments, care plans or case conferences, as part of the Enhanced Primary Care program’, Australian Health Review, 25(6): 121.
Wilkinson, D., McElroy, H., Beilby, J., Mott, K., Price, K., Morey, S. and Best, J. (2003), ‘Are socio-economically disadvantaged Australians making more or less use of the enhanced primary care Medicare benefit schedule item numbers?’, Australian Health Review, 26(3): 4349.
Wiltshire, K. (1992), ‘Australia’s new federalism: recipes for marble cakes’, Publius, 22(3): 165180.
Wranik, D. W. and Durier-Copp, M. (2009), ‘Physician remuneration methods for family physicians in Canada: expected outcomes and lessons learned’, Health Care Analysis, 18(1): 3559.
Zwar, N., Hermiz, O., Comino, E., Shortus, T., Burns, J. and Harris, M. (2007), ‘Do multidisciplinary care plans result in better care for patients with type 2 diabetes?’, Australian Family Physician, 36(1/2): 85.
Zwar, N. A., Comino, E. J., Hasan, I. and Harris, M. F. (2005), ‘General practitioner views on barriers and facilitators to implementation of the Asthma 3+ Visit Plan’, The Medical Journal of Australia, 183(2): 6467.

Expanding the breadth of Medicare: learning from Australia

  • Stephen Duckett (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed