1 Pinney, Thomas (ed.), Letters of Thomas Babington Macaulay (Cambridge, 1971–1917), IV, 17–18.
2 Pinney, , Macaulay's letters, IV, 19.
4 Clive, John (ed.), Thomas Carlyle: history of Frederick the Great (Chicago, 1969), p. XXV.
5 Beatty, R. C., ‘Macaulay and Carlyle’, Philological Quarterly, XVIII (1939), p. 32.
6 I.c. Young, G. M. (ed.), Macaulay: prose and poetry (London, 1952); Trevor-Roper, H. (ed.), Macaulay: critical and historical essays, (London, 1965); Clive, J. and Pinney, T. (eds.), Selected writings of Thomas Babington Macaulay (Chicago, 1972).
7 Atkinson, C. T. (ed.), Lord Macaulay: Frederic the Great (Oxford, 1914), p. iv. Other editions were Davis, H. W. C. (ed.), Lord Macaulay: essay on Frederic the Great (London, 1909); Salmon, D. (ed.), Macaulay's essay on Frederic the Great (London, 1913).
8 ‘Frederic the Great’ (Apr. 1842) in Macaulay, Lord, Essays and lays of ancient Rome (London 1890, popular edn), p. 807. Frederic's tolerance is confirmed by Hubatsch, Walther, Frederick the Great of Prussia: absolutism and administration (London, 1975), p. 40. John Clive's most recent assessment of Macaulay confirms that Frederick's maintenance of a ‘free press’ was an important aspect of Macaulay's approval. In ‘Why read the great 19th-century historians?’ he argues that Macaulay's distinctive interest both in his History and in his political life was with the ‘public mind’ and ‘public opinion’. The American Scholar, XLVIII, I (1978–1979), 42–8.
9 Macaulay, , Essays, p. 807.
11 Trevelyan, George Otto, The life and letters of Lord Macaulay (London, 1890, popular edn), p. 392.
13 Clive, and Pinney, , Macaulay's selected writings, p. xxiii.
14 Macaulay, , Essays, p. 801.
16 Davis, , Macaulay's Frederic, p. viii.
17 Macaulay's, Essays, p. 827.
18 Trevelyan, , Macaulay, pp. 396–7.
19 Pinney, , Macaulay's letters, IV, 22.
20 ‘Nature.… had withheld from him those higher and rarer gifts without which industry labours in vain to produce immortal eloquence and song.’ Macaulay, , Essays, p. 796.
21 Pinney, , Macaulay's letters, II, 155.
23 Trevelyan, , Macaulay, p. 426.
24 Pinney, , Macaulay's letters, IV, 22, 24.
25 Macaulay, , Essays, p. 823.
26 Trevelyan, , Macaulay, p. 474.
27 Dictionary of national biography, XII, 415, 418.
28 Macaulay, , Essays, p. 794. Cf. ‘His statements of faith gradually became ambiguous and calculated, as he made them into a weapon of his opposition a telling weapon, since it was aimed at his father's conscience and religious scruples.’ Hinrichs, Carl, ‘The conflict between Frederick and his father’, in Paret, Peter (ed.), Frederick the Great: a profile (New York, 1972), p. 11.
29 Bufano, Randolph J. (ed.), ‘An unpublished memoir of Lord Macaulay’, Notes and Queries, n.s. XXV (06 1978), 241.
30 Clive, John, Thomas Babington Macaulay, the shaping of the historian (London, 1973), p. 54.
31 Trevelyan, , Macaulay, p. 98. ‘He could always be propitiated by a present of a grenadier of six feet four or six feet five; and such presents were from time to time judiciously offered by his son.’ Macaulay, , Essays, p. 797.
32 Clive, , Macaulay, p. 499.
33 Macaulay, , Essays, pp. 793, 829.
34 Simon, Edith, The making of Frederick the Great (London, 1963), p. 46.
35 Ritter, Gerhard, Frederick the Great: an historical profile (London, 1968), p. III.
36 Gooch, G. P., Frederick the Great, the ruler, the writer, the man (London, 1947), pp. 233–4.
37 Pinney, , Macaulay's letters, 11, 148.
38 Carlyle, Thomas, History of Friedrich II of Prussia (London n.d.), VI, book 19, ch. 1, p. 5.
39 Clive, , Carlyle's Frederick, p. xxxiv.
40 Millgate, Jane, Macaulay (London, 1973), p. 97.
41 Clive, and Pinney, , Macaulay's selected writings, p. XV.