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WOMEN INVESTORS AND THE VIRGINIA COMPANY IN THE EARLY SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

  • MISHA EWEN (a1)
Abstract

This article explores the role of women investors in the Virginia Company during the early seventeenth century, arguing that women determined the success of English overseas expansion by ‘adventuring’ not just their person, but their purse. Trading companies relied on the capital of women, and yet in seminal work on Virginia Company investors women have received no attention at all. This is a significant oversight, as studying the women who invested in trading companies illuminates broader issues regarding the role of women in the early English empire. This article explores why and how two women from merchant backgrounds, Rebecca Romney (d. 1644) and Katherine Hueriblock (d. 1639), managed diverse, global investment portfolios in the period before the Financial Revolution. Through company records, wills, letters, court depositions, and a surviving church memorial tablet, it reconstructs Romney's and Hueriblock's interconnected interests in ‘New World’ ventures, including in Newfoundland, the North-West Passage Company, Virginia colony, and sugar trade. Studying women investors reveals how trade and colonization shaped economic activity and investment practices in the domestic sphere and also elucidates how women, in their role as investors, helped give birth to an English empire.

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Department of History, School of Arts, Languages and Cultures, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, m13 9plmisha.ewen@manchester.ac.uk
Footnotes
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Aske Brock, Amy Froide, Sasha Handley, Jason Peacey, Susanah Shaw Romney, and Edmond Smith all offered feedback, encouragement, and valuable insight at many different stages of this research. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers of this journal for their comments. The completion of this research was only made possible by generous funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (University College London) and the Leverhulme Trust (University of Kent), as well as short-term fellowships at the Huntington Library and Folger Library.

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1 There is a large body of scholarship on the English colonization of Virginia in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. See Roper, L. H., The English empire in America, 1602–1658: beyond Jamestown (London, 2009); Kupperman, Karen Ordahl, The Jamestown project (London, 2007); Fitzmaurice, Andrew, Humanism and America: an intellectual history of English colonisation, 1500–1625 (Cambridge, 2003); and Horn, James, Adapting to a New World: English society in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake (London, 1994).

2 Dean, David, ‘Elizabeth's lottery: political culture and state formation in early modern England’, Journal of British Studies, 50 (2011), pp. 586611, at pp. 590–1.

3 Anon., Londons lotterie: with an incouragement to the furtherance thereof, for the good of Virginia, and the benefite of this our native countrie; wishing good fortune to all the venture in the same. To the tune of Lusty Gallant (London, 1612; STC 16756.5). Also, Johnson, Robert C., ‘The lotteries of the Virginia Company’, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 74 (1966), pp. 259–92.

4 Shepard, Alexandra, ‘Making their own business: married women and credit in early eighteenth-century London’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 25 (2015), p. 55.

5 Anon., Londons lotterie.

6 See discussion in Froide, Amy, Silent partners: women as public investors during Britain's Financial Revolution, 1690–1750 (Oxford, 2017), ch. 2.

7 Dean, ‘Elizabeth's lottery’.

8 Ewen, C. L'Estrange, Lotteries and sweepstakes: an historical, legal, and ethical survey of their introduction, suppression and re-establishment in the British Isles (London, 1932), p. 59.

9 One surviving document notes that on 27 May 1615 in High Wycombe, the mayor and thirty citizens, including women and children, contributed £12 13s 4d towards the lottery. Greaves, R. W., ed., The first ledger book of High Wycombe (Welwyn Garden City, 1947), p. 109.

10 The National Archives (TNA), Fitzwilliam v. West, Jan. 1615, STAC 8/144/6, fos. 1–2.

11 Somerset Record Office, Examination, 20 Oct. 1619, Q/SR/34/91.

12 Dated 12 Jan. 1620. Kingsbury, Susan Myra, ed., The records of the Virginia Company of London (5 vols., Washington, DC, 1906–35), i, p. 295.

13 Rabb, Theodore K., Enterprise and empire: merchant and gentry investment in the expansion of England: 1575–1630 (Cambridge, MA, 1967); Craven, Wesley Frank, The dissolution of the Virginia Company: the failure of a colonial experiment (New York, NY, 1932); Craven, Wesley Frank, The Virginia Company of London, 1606–1642 (Williamsburg, VA, 1957); Brenner, Robert, Merchants and revolution: commercial change, political conflict, and London's overseas traders, 1550–1653 (Cambridge, 1993). On women in the East India Company, see Sharpe, Pamela, ‘Gender at sea: women and the East India Company in seventeenth-century London’, in Lane, Penelope, Raven, Neil, and Snell, K. D. M., eds., Women, work and wages in England, 1600–1850 (Martlesham, 2004).

14 Pearsall, Sarah M. S., ‘Gender’, in Armitage, David and Braddick, Michael J., eds., The British Atlantic world, 1500–1800 (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 114–15; Ransome, David R., ‘Wives for Virginia, 1621’, William and Mary Quarterly, 48 (1991), pp. 318; Carr, Lois Green and Walsh, Lorena S., ‘The planter's wife: the experience of white women in seventeenth-century Maryland’, William and Mary Quarterly, 34 (1977), pp. 542–71; and Brown, Kathleen M., Good wives, nasty wenches, and anxious patriarchs (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996). For women in Dutch colonies, see Romney, Susanah Shaw, ‘“With & alongside his housewife”: claiming ground in New Netherland and the early modern Dutch empire’, William and Mary Quarterly, 73 (2016), pp. 187224.

15 Romney, Susanah Shaw, New Netherland connections: intimate networks and Atlantic ties in seventeenth-century America (Chapel Hill, NC, 2014); Froide, Silent partners, pp. 64–5.

16 Froide, Silent partners; Carlos, Ann M. and Neal, Larry, ‘Women investors in early capital markets, 1720–1725’, Financial History Review, 11 (2004), pp. 197224; and Murphy, Anne L., ‘Lotteries in the 1690s: investment or gamble?’, Financial History Review, 12 (2005), pp. 227–46, at pp. 238–9.

17 Hubbard, Eleanor, City women: money, sex, and the social order in early modern London (Oxford, 2012), p. 189; Froide, Amy M., Never married: singlewomen in early modern England (Oxford, 2005), ch. 5.

18 Spicksley, Judith, ‘Usury legislation, cash, and credit: the development of the female investor in late Tudor and Stuart periods,’ Economic History Review, 61 (2008), pp. 277301, at p. 297. Other key works on women and credit in early modern England include Spicksley, Judith, ‘“Fly with a duck in thy mouth”: single women as sources of credit in seventeenth-century England’, Social History, 32 (2007), pp. 187207; Muldrew, Craig, ‘“A mutual assent of her mind”? Women, debt, litigation and contract in early modern England’, History Workshop Journal, 55 (2003), pp. 4771; Whittle, Jane, ‘Enterprising widows and active wives: women's unpaid work in the household economy of early modern England’, History of the Family, 19 (2014), pp. 283300; Shepard, ‘Married women’, pp. 53–74; Shepard, Alexandra, ‘Crediting women in the early modern English economy’, History Workshop Journal, 79 (2015), pp. 124.

19 Muldrew, ‘Contract in early modern England’, p. 48; Spicksley, ‘Female investor’, p. 289; Spicksley, ‘Single women’, p. 187; Grassby, Richard, Kinship and capitalism: marriage, family, and business in the English-speaking world, 1580–1740 (Cambridge, 2001), p. 332; Sharpe, Pamela, ‘Gender in the economy: female merchants and family businesses in the British Isles, 1600–1850’, Social History, 34 (2001), pp. 283306, at p. 294.

20 As the records for Katherine Hueriblock span her three marriages – to John West, Richard Fust, and Sir Edward Conway – her unmarried name is used throughout for clarity.

21 Todd, Barbara, ‘Property and a woman's place in Restoration London’, Women's History Review, 19 (2010), pp. 181200, at pp. 182, 188.

22 Gauci, Perry, The politics of trade: the overseas merchant in state and society, 1660–1720 (Oxford, 2001), pp. 78–9. On how membership to corporations enabled individuals to exercise ‘social capital’, see Withington, Phil, Society in early modern England: the vernacular origins of some powerful ideas (Cambridge, 2010), p. 205; and Ogilvie, Sheilagh, Institutions and European trade: merchant guilds, 1000–1800 (Cambridge, 2011), p. 7.

23 Froide, Never married, pp. 134–8.

24 See Rabb, Enterprise and empire, pp. 59–61, 104. Because of the steep price of membership to the EIC (£200), less experienced investors would sometimes ‘adventure’ together with more experienced merchants. See Edmond Smith, ‘Networks of the East India Company, 1600–1625’ (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge, 2015), ch. 2.

25 Edmond Smith, ‘The global interests of London's commercial community, 1599–1625: investment in the East India Company’, Economic History Review, https://doi.org/10.1111/ehr.12665, at n. 5, pp. 13–15.

26 The second charter of Virginia (1609), in Brown, Alexander, ed., The genesis of the United States (2 vols., New York, NY, 1964), i, pp. 206–37; and Kupperman, Jamestown project, pp. 242–3.

27 Kingsbury, ed., Records, iii, pp. 87, 89.

28 TNA, will of John West, Grocer of London, 10 Sept. 1613, PROB 11/122/205.

29 London Metropolitan Archives (LMA), parish registers: St Giles Cripplegate, City of London, 17 Apr. 1593, P69/GIS/A/002/MS06419/001; and LMA, marriage allegations, diocese of London, 7 Mar. 1603, DL/A/D/002/MS10091/002.

30 Thomas Lappidge was a Silkweaver, and William Parker a Brewer. LMA, will of Samuel Ramsden, Gent., 20 Oct. 1606, MS 9172/23B; TNA, will of John Worsley, Brewer, 26 Aug. 1603, PROB 11/102. Milicent Young had a daughter, Dorcas Worsley, indicating that these women were the kin of John Worsley. TNA, will of Milicent St John, widow of West Kington, Wiltshire, 11 May 1636, PROB 11/171/70.

31 Kingsbury, ed., Records, i, p. 235, iii, p. 60. For her marriage to St John in 1609, Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, Act Book, 20 Dec. 1609, D1/39/1/37, fo. 130.

32 They included the countesses of Bedford, Pembroke, and Derby. Roper, English empire, pp. 74, 77–8.

33 The third charter of Virginia (1612), in Brown, ed., Genesis of the United States, ii, pp. 540–53; also the complete list of shareholders in 1618, with amount of stock, in Kingsbury, ed., Records, iii, pp. 79–90. For Bedford's investment in the Bermuda Company, see Helen Payne, ‘Russell [née Harrington], Lucy, countess of Bedford (bap. 1581, d. 1627)’, Oxford dictionary of national biography (ODNB).

34 Sharpe, ‘Gender at sea’, p. 58.

35 Kingsbury, ed., Records, i, p. 497.

36 The first two court books (28 Jan. 1606 – 14 Feb. 1615 and 31 Jan. 1615 – 28 Apr. 1619) were in the Virginia Company's possession in 1623, but no record of them afterwards has survived. See Kingsbury, ed., Records, i, pp. 22, 25. Note that Kingsbury mistakenly gives the end date of the second book as 28 July, rather than 28 April.

37 For the exchange of shares in the Virginia Company between 1615 and 1623, and women's shareholding, see Kingsbury, ed., Records, iii, pp. 58–66, 83.

38 Rabb, Enterprise and empire, p. 368; James McDermott, ‘Romney, Sir William (d. 1611)’, ODNB; Hiden, Martha W., ‘A voyage of fishing & discovery 1609’, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 65 (1957), pp. 62–6, at p. 64; TNA, will of Sir William Romeny (sic), 9 May 1611, PROB 11/117/496.

39 Including an overseer of his will, Sir Thomas Myddelton, and the merchant Roger Dye, discussed below. See Guildhall Library (GL), Grocers’ Company court minute book, undated May 1611, CLC/L/GH/B/001/MS11588/002, fo. 632.

40 TNA, will of Robert Taylor, Mercer of London, 21 Oct. 1592, PROB 11/80/301; LMA, parish registers: St Magnus the Martyr, 5 Feb. 1582, P69/MAG/A/001/MS011361. On women's work with their male relations, Erickson, Amy Louise, ‘Married women's occupations in eighteenth-century London’, Continuity and Change, 32 (2008), pp. 267307, at p. 290; and Schmidt, Ariadne, ‘The profits of unpaid work. “Assisting labour” of women in the early modern urban Dutch economy’, History of the Family, 19 (2014), pp. 301–22, at p. 306.

41 Grassby, Kinship and capitalism, p. 132.

42 TNA, will of Sir William Romeny (sic), 9 May 1611, PROB 11/117/496. Also, Erickson, Amy, Women and property in early modern England (London, 1993), p. 27; and Keene, D. J. and Harding, Vanessa, ‘St. Martin Pomary 95/13–15’, in Historical gazetteer of London before the Great Fire Cheapside; parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane (London, 1987), pp. 169–79, available British History Online, www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/london-gazetteer-pre-fire/pp169-179. On widows continuing in trade, see Schmidt, ‘“Assisting labour”’, p. 315.

43 Froide, Silent partners, pp. 101, 106; Kesselring, Krista J. and Stretton, Tim, ‘Introduction: coverture and continuity’, in Kesselring, Krista J. and Stretton, Tim, eds., Married women and the law: coverture in England and the common law world (Montreal, 2013), p. 12; Erickson, Amy Louise, ‘Coverture and capitalism’, History Workshop Journal, 59 (2005), pp. 116; McIntosh, Marjorie K., ‘The benefits and drawbacks of femme sole status in England, 1300–1600’, Journal of British Studies, 44 (2005), pp. 410–38.

44 Miller, Christy, ed., The voyages of Captain Luke Foxe of Hull, and Captain Thomas James of Bristol, in search of a northwest passage, in 1631–32: with narratives of the earliest northwest voyages of Frobisher, David, Weymouth, Hall, Knight, Hudson, Button, Gibbons, Bylot, Baflin, Hawkridge, and others (2 vols., London, 1894), i, p. 149. For Lady Romney's investments, see Rabb, Enterprise and empire, p. 368. For the North-West Passage Company charter and its investors, see Sainsbury, W. Noel, ed., Calendar of State papers colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, 1513–1616 (5 vols., London, 1864), ii, pp. 238–41.

45 Her dealing in sugar must have occurred sometime before 1620 when Roger Dye died. So although this case is undated, we can posit it was between 1611 and 1620. TNA, Parslow v. Romney, undated, C 2/JasI/P7/47; TNA, will of Sir William Romeny (sic), 9 May 1611, PROB 11/117/496; TNA, will of Roger Dye, Grocer of St Magnus, City of London, 18 Oct. 1620, PROB 11/136/321.

46 For discussion, see Erickson, ‘Married women's occupations’, p. 282.

47 TNA, Heath v. Romney, 7 Nov. 1613, C 2/JasI/H1/52, fo. 1.

48 Muldrew, ‘Contract in early modern England’, p. 53.

49 Membership to the Livery Companies was found using ‘The records of the London Livery Companies online’ (ROLLCO), www.londonroll.org; TNA, Heath v. Romney, 23 Nov. 1613, C 2/JasI/H1/52, fo. 2.

50 TNA, Parslow v. Romney, undated, C 2/JasI/P7/47.

51 Schroeder, John J., ‘War finance in London, 1642–1646’, Historian, 21 (1959), pp. 356–71, at pp. 358–9.

52 Vicars, John, God on the mount, or a continuation of England's parliamentary chronicle (London, 1643), p. 128.

53 Todd, ‘Property and a woman's place’, pp. 185, 197.

54 City of London, Livery Companies Commission, report (5 vols., London, 1884), iv, pp. 457–77; Sherwood, M., ed., The endowed charities of the City of London (London, 1829), pp. 502–3; McDermott, ‘Romney, Sir William’, ODNB.

55 Jordan, W. K., The charities of London 1480–1660: the aspirations and the achievements of the urban society (London, 1960), pp. 255, 398; McDermott, ‘Romney, Sir William’, ODNB.

56 Jordan, Charities of London, p. 106.

57 Moens, William John Charles, ed., The marriage, baptismal, and burial registers, 1571 to 1874, and monumental inscriptions, of the Dutch Reformed Church, Austin Friars, London (Lymington, 1884), p. 211; Grell, Ole Peter, Dutch Calvinists in early Stuart London: the Dutch church in Austin Friars, 1603–1642 (New York, NY, 1989), pp. 52, 299; and Kirk, E. G. and Kirk, E. F. eds., Returns of aliens dwelling in the city and suburbs of London from the reign of Henry VIII to that of James I (4 vols., Aberdeen, 1900–8), ii, pp. 162, 187, 203, 207, 209, 254, 275, 340, 411, 414, 442. Also, TNA, will of Giles Hueriblock or Hueriblocke, merchant of City of London, 2 Nov. 1594, PROB 11/84/311; and TNA, will of Catharyne Hendriex, widow of Stepney, Middlesex, 12 Feb. 1619, PROB 11/133. Note that there were variant spellings of Catherine Hendriex.

58 TNA, will of John West, 10 Sept. 1613, PROB 11/122/205; TNA, will of Richard Fust, Grocer of Saint Clement, City of London, 9 Mar. 1614, PROB 11/123/266; Sean Kelsey, ‘Conway, Edward, first Viscount Conway and first Viscount Killultagh (c. 1564–1631)’, ODNB.

59 For the marriage prospects of wealthy widows, see Grassby, Kinship and capitalism, p. 140. Quote from TNA, Graye Conyers to Francis Conyers, 13 Mar. 1614, Chiswick, State papers, 14/76, fo. 93.

60 It is difficult to distinguish whether it was her husband or stepson (of the same name) who also bought shares in the Virginia Company in 1609. A John West also invested in the Spanish (1604), Irish (1609), and Bermuda (1615) companies. It was certainly John West (the son) who invested in the Bermuda Company, because by this date his father was dead. See Rabb, Enterprise and empire, p. 400.

61 There are fifty-six livery companies listed. See The second charter of Virginia (1609), in Brown, ed., Genesis of the United States, i, pp. 206–37.

62 Mrs Boxe may have been the widow of Henry Boxe who witnessed John West's will. A Mr Boxe also mediated with the Grocers’ Company concerning Lady Conway's bequest. See TNA, will of Dame Katherine Viscountess Conway, widow, 19 July 1639, PROB 11/180/714; TNA, will of John West, 10 Sept. 1613, PROB 11/122/205; GL, Grocers’ Company court minute book, 22 Aug. 1639 – 22 Sept. 1639, CLC/L/GH/B/001/MS11588/003, fos. 640, 644–6. For women's material gifts to guild companies in this period, see Jasmine Kilburn-Toppin, ‘Gifting cultures and artisanal guilds in sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century London’, Historical Journal, 60 (2017), pp. 865–87, at p. 880.

63 TNA, Kyte v. Grocers, 1677, C 7/200/142; Sherwood, ed., Endowed charities, pp. 237–8.

64 Archer, Ian, ‘The arts and acts of memorialization in early modern London’, in Merritt, J. F., ed., Imagining early modern London: perceptions and portrayals of the city from Stow to Strype, 1598–1720 (Cambridge, 2001), p. 90.

65 Norman, Philip, ed., Survey of London monograph 7, East Acton Manor House (7 vols., London, 1896–2010), vii, pp. 2830.

66 Grassby, Richard, The business community of seventeenth-century England (Cambridge, 1995), p. 157; Grell, Dutch church, pp. 257, 264; Kingsbury, ed., Records, iii, p. 89.

67 Moens, ed., Dutch Reformed Church, p. 211; Grell, Dutch church, pp. 52, 299. For Katherine Hueriblock's endowment, see TNA, will of Dame Katherine Viscountess Conway, 19 July 1639, PROB 11/180/714; and Norman, ed., Survey of London, vii, pp. 28–30.

68 TNA, Secretary Conway to Mrs Cole, 1 Dec. 1628, State papers, 16/122 fo. 1. Louisa Cool's father, Mathias de Lobel, was James VI and I's herbalist. At this date, she was recently widowed. Jacob Cool's family had settled in Lime Street, where they practised in the silk trade, and he was also made an elder of the Dutch church in 1624. After his death, the widowed Mrs Cool married Abraham Vanderdort in 1628, curator of the Royal Collection, under Charles I. See D. E. Allen, ‘L'Obel, Mathias de (1538–1616), botanist’; and Ole Peter Grell, ‘Cool, Jacob [Jacobus Colius; called Ortelianus] (1563–1628), scholar and writer’, ODNB. Also, Farquhar, Helen and Allen, Derek F., ‘Abraham Vanderdort and the coinage of Charles I’, Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, 1 (1941), pp. 5475.

69 Todt, Kim, ‘“Women are as knowing therein as the men”: Dutch women in early America’, in Foster, Thomas A., ed., Women in early America (London, 2015), pp. 43, 46–7. For the education of English women in business, see Anne. L. Murphy, ‘“You do manage it so well that I cannot do better”: the working life of Elizabeth Jeake of Rye (1667–1736)’, Women's History Review, https://doi.org/10.1080/09612025.2018.1455569, p. 9.

70 Korda, Natasha, ‘Froes, rebatoes and other “outlandish comodityes”: weaving alien women's work into the fabric of early modern material culture’, in Hamling, Tara and Richardson, Catherine, eds., Everyday objects: medieval and early modern material culture and its meanings (Farnham, 2010), pp. 95–6.

71 TNA, will of Catharyne Hendriex, 12 Feb. 1619, PROB 11/133; TNA, power of attorney from Sir Edward Conway … to Guillaume Van der Moyden, 30 Dec. 1619, State papers, 14/111, fo. 175. For her residence in London, see Kirk and Kirk, eds., Returns of aliens, ii, p. 470, iii, pp. 124, 126, 128–9.

72 Whittle, ‘Enterprising widows’, p. 288; Schmidt, ‘“Assisting labour”’, pp. 318–19; and Froide, Never married, pp. 106–7.

73 For the association between Petticoat Lane and those occupied in the silk industry, see ‘The Halifax estate in Spitalfields', in Sheppard, F. H. W., ed., Survey of London: volume 27, Spitalfields and Mile End New Town (London, 1957), pp. 237–41. Accessed via British History Online, www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol27/pp237-241.

74 Erickson, ‘Married women's occupations’, p. 286.

75 TNA, will of John West, 10 Sept. 1613, PROB 11/122/205.

76 Walsh, Lorena S., Motives of honor, pleasure, and profit: plantation management in the colonial Chesapeake, 1607–1763 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2010), pp. 65–6.

77 Grassby, Kinship and capitalism, pp. 92–3; Froide, Silent partners, pp. 101ff.

78 Rabb, Enterprise and empire, p. 66; and Paul Hunneyball, ‘Conway, Sir Edward I (c. 1563–1631)’, History of Parliament Online, www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/conway-sir-edward-i-1563-1631.

79 Cell, Gillian T., ‘The Newfoundland Company: a study of subscribers to a colonizing venture’, William and Mary Quarterly, 22 (1965), pp. 611–25, at p. 625.

80 See The second charter of Virginia (1609), in Brown, ed., Genesis of the United States, i, pp. 206–37; TNA, will of Richard Fust, 9 Mar. 1614, PROB 11/123/266; TNA, Dr James Meddus to Secretary Conway, 26 July 1624, Fenchurch, State papers, 14/170, fo. 86.

81 Sainsbury, ed., Calendar of State papers colonial, East Indies, ii, pp. 238–41; TNA, William Payne to Secretary Conway, 20 June 1626, London, State papers, 16/30, fo. 66.

82 TNA, William Payne to Dr James Meddus, 30 June 1628, Highgate, State papers, 16/108, fo. 126.

83 TNA, William Payne to Katherine Lady Conway, 2 Nov. 1627, n.p., State papers, 16/84, fo. 14.

84 TNA, Dr James Meddus to Katherine Viscountess Conway, 27 June 1628, Fenchurch, State papers, 16/108, fo. 80.

85 TNA, Dr James Meddus to Katherine Viscountess Conway, 25 July 1628, Fenchurch, State papers, 16/111, fo. 71.

86 See also Cell, Gillian T., English enterprise in Newfoundland, 1577–1660 (Toronto, ON, 1969), p. 78.

87 Froide, Silent partners, pp. 151, 176–7.

88 Sharpe, ‘Gender at sea’, pp. 62–3; Spicksley, ‘Female investor’, p. 289; Spicksley, ‘Single women’, p. 197; Todd, ‘Property and a woman's place’, p. 189.

89 See Ferrar papers, Magdalene College, Cambridge, annual accounts of earl of Southampton and Nicholas Ferrar, 22 May 1622 – 22 May 1623, no. 480; certificate of Virginia Company, 12 May 1623, no. 476; interest and warrant, 23 Dec. 1620 – 22 May 1622, no. 383. On women lending by bond, see Spicksley, ‘Single women’, p. 195; Froide, Never married, pp. 134–5.

90 Froide, Never married, p. 139.

91 City of London, Livery Companies Commission, iv, pp. 457–77; and Sherwood, ed., Endowed charities, pp. 502–3.

92 LMA, Bridewell court book, 26 July 1617 –13 Mar. 1626, CLC/275/MS33011/006; Coldham, Peter Wilson, Child apprentices in America from Christ's Hospital, London 1617–1778 (Baltimore, MD, 1990). Also, Ewen, Misha, ‘“Poor soules”: migration, labor, and visions for commonwealth in Virginia’, in Horn, James, Mancall, Peter, and Musselwhite, Paul, eds., Virginia 1619: slavery and freedom in the making of English America (Chapel Hill, NC, forthcoming); and Johnson, R. C., ‘The transportation of vagrant children from London to Virginia, 1618–1622’, in Reinmuth, Howard S., ed., Early Stuart studies: essays in honour of David Harris Wilson (Minneapolis, MN, 1970), p. 144.

93 Sandys was opposing his colleague in the Virginia Company, Sir Thomas Smythe, to represent Sandwich (Kent). See Andrew Thrush, ‘Sandys, Sir Edwin (1561–1629)’, History of Parliament Online, www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/sandys-sir-edwin-1561-1629.

94 For this attempt, see Kupperman, Jamestown project, p. 293; Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 55–6; Rabb, Theodore K., Jacobean gentleman: Sir Edwin Sandys, 1561–1629 (Chichester, 1998), pp. 329–30.

95 On women as active investors, see Sharpe, ‘Gender in the economy’, pp. 301–2.

96 Johnson, ‘Lotteries of the Virginia Company’, pp. 270ff; TNA, Fitzwilliam v. West, Jan. 1615, STAC 8/144/6, fos. 1–2. For women who defrauded lotteries during the Financial Revolution, see Froide, Silent partners, pp. 176–7.

97 Craven, Dissolution of the Virginia Company, p. 33; and Kupperman, Jamestown project, p. 261.

98 TNA, Fitzwilliam v. West, Jan. 1615, STAC 8/144/6, fos. 1–2.

99 Selwood, Jacob, Diversity and difference in early modern London (Farnham, 2010), pp. 73–4.

100 Dean, ‘Elizabeth's lottery’, p. 591.

101 TNA, will of John West, 10 Sept. 1613, PROB 11/122/205.

102 New York Public Library, Richard Berkley to John Smyth, 3 Aug. 1633, MssCol 2799/42. For secrecy surrounding women's investments, see Froide, Silent partners, p. 71.

103 Katherine Hueriblock was said to be seventy-four when she died in 1639, and Rebecca Romney was described as an ‘ancient matron’ in 1642. Norman, ed., Survey of London, vii, pp. 28–30; Vicars, God on the mount, p. 128.

Aske Brock, Amy Froide, Sasha Handley, Jason Peacey, Susanah Shaw Romney, and Edmond Smith all offered feedback, encouragement, and valuable insight at many different stages of this research. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers of this journal for their comments. The completion of this research was only made possible by generous funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (University College London) and the Leverhulme Trust (University of Kent), as well as short-term fellowships at the Huntington Library and Folger Library.

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The Historical Journal
  • ISSN: 0018-246X
  • EISSN: 1469-5103
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