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Why We Need More Histories of Low-Status Institutions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2020

Extract

As scholars of higher education regularly point out, American universities face a fundamental tension between access and exclusion. On the one hand, as publicly supported institutions operating in a democracy, they are charged with promoting social mobility and sharing knowledge that can improve society. On the other, they are tasked with identifying and supporting elites—those talented, ambitious, and hardworking individuals who deserve the most money and accolades. In his 1993 History of Education Society presidential address, “Race, Meritocracy, and the American Academy during the Immediate Post-World War II Era,” historian James Anderson describes one way in which northern white colleges and universities coped with this tension after World War II. During this time, Fred Wale, director of education for the Julius Rosenwald Fund, compiled a list of 150 outstanding black scholars with degrees from schools like the University of Chicago, Harvard, Columbia, and the University of Michigan; extensive teaching experience at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs); and highly regarded publication records. Wale sent his list to hundreds of university presidents, encouraging them to consider these qualified candidates for faculty appointments. His efforts made minimal impact: between 1945 and 1947, only twenty-three of the scholars on Wale's list were offered permanent faculty positions at northern white universities.

Type
60th Anniversary HEQ Forum
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 History of Education Society

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References

1 Anderson, James, “Race, Meritocracy, and the American Academy during the Immediate Post-World War II Era,” History of Education Quarterly 33, no. 2 (Summer 1993), 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 Anderson, “Race, Meritocracy, and the American Academy,” 163.

3 Labaree, David F., A Perfect Mess: The Unlikely Ascendancy of American Higher Education (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 159CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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5 Morris, Aldon, The Scholar Denied: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017)Google Scholar.

6 Labaree, A Perfect Mess, 159.

7 Kevin Kinser's book From Main Street to Wall Street is a notable exception to the lack of historical research on for-profit colleges and universities. In this volume, Kinser argues for more work on this sector, writing: “No comprehensive account of the history of for-profit higher education has been attempted since the 1960s. Both a broad history of the sector from its beginning and a more concentrated focus on the transformations since the 1970s are warranted.” Kinser, Kevin, From Main Street to Wall Street: The Transformation of For-Profit Higher Education (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006), 129Google Scholar.

8 Richard M. Nixon, “Special Message to the Congress on Higher Education,” February 22, 1971, The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara, https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/special-message-the-congress-higher-education.

9 Anderson, “Race, Meritocracy, and the American Academy,” 166.

10 Consider, for example, Mario Small's “Departmental Conditions and the Emergence of New Disciplines,” which examines the founding of African American Studies departments at Temple and Harvard Universities—two pinnacle institutions. Small, Mario, “Departmental Conditions and the Emergence of New Disciplines: Two Cases in the Legitimation of African-American Studies,” Theory and Society 28, no. 5 (Oct. 1999), 659707CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

11 Miller, Jay W. and Hamilton, William, The Independent Business School in American Education (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), 45Google Scholar.

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13 Anderson, Race, Meritocracy, and the American Academy, 161.

14 The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, “Basic Classification Description,” https://carnegieclassifications.iu.edu/classification_descriptions/basic.php.

15 Bañuelos, Nidia, “From Commercial Schools to Corporate Universities: Explaining the Shift in Proprietary Business Education in the U.S., 1970–1990,” Journal of Higher Education 87, no. 4 (July/August, 2016), 573600CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

16 Edith Green as cited in US Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Higher Education Amendments of 1971:Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., part 1, 237.

17 Marjorie Webster Junior College, Inc. v. Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, Inc., 432 F.2d 650, (D.C. Cir., 1970), at 11.

18 Thurston Manning, “Emerging Issues in Postsecondary Education: Standards and Accreditation,” 1977, 8, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Archives, Records Relating to the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools/Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, 1968-1999, box 12, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL.

19 Keller Graduate School of Management, “Keller MBA Professors Practice What They Teach,” Chicago Tribune, advertisement, Aug. 5, 1990, sec. 19, 5.

20 DeVry University, Different on Purpose, TV commercial, iSpot.tv, 1995, https://www.ispot.tv/ad/7eKz/devry-university-different-on-purpose.

21 Behrman, Jack N. and Levin, Richard I., “Are Business Schools Doing Their Job?Harvard Business Review 62, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 1984), 140Google Scholar.

22 Hayes, Robert H. and Abernathy, William J., “Managing Our Way to Economic Decline,” Harvard Business Review 58, no. 4 (July/Aug. 1980), 74Google Scholar.

23 Brint, Steven and Karabel, Jerome, The Diverted Dream: Community Colleges and the Promise of Educational Opportunity in America, 1900–1985 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989)Google Scholar.

24 Sperling, John, Rebel with a Cause: The Entrepreneur Who Created the University of Phoenix and the For-Profit Revolution in Higher Education (New York: Wiley, 2000)Google Scholar.

25 Iloh, Constance and Tierney, William G., “Understanding For-Profit College and Community College Choice through Rational Choice,” Teachers College Record 116, no. 8 (2014)Google Scholar.

26 Dzuback, “Gender and the Politics of Knowledge,” 178.

27 Bourdieu, Pierre, Homo Academicus, trans. Collier, Peter (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988)Google Scholar; and Abbott., Andrew D.Chaos of Disciplines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001)Google Scholar.

28 James M. Cline, “Special Ad Hoc Study Committee,” July 9, 1959, folder 27, box 35, series 1, Records of the Office of the Chancellor, University of California, Berkeley, CU-149, University Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (hereafter cited as Records of the Office of the Chancellor).

29 G. Mackinney (Vice-Chairman of the Committee on Educational Policy) to Glenn T. Seaborg (Chancellor) January 13, 1960, 2, folder 28, box 35, series 1, Records of the Office of the Chancellor.

30 Arthur G. Coons, et al., A Master Plan for Higher Education in California, 1960–1975 (Sacramento: California State Department of Education, 1960), https://www.ucop.edu/acadinit/mastplan/MasterPlan1960.pdf.

31 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, “The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society” (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1967), 109.

32 Sherman, Lawrence, The Quality of Police Education: A Critical Review with Recommendations for Improving Programs in Higher Education (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978)Google Scholar.

33 There is recent evidence to suggest police education can have a great impact on the public good. A 2007 study found that police officers with college degrees are less likely to use excessive force. Paoline, Eugene A. and Terrill, William, “Police Education, Experience, and the Use of Force,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 34, no. 2 (Feb. 2007), 179–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

34 National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System: Criminal Justice Education and Training, vol. 5 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1978)Google Scholar.

35 Sherman, The Quality of Police Education, 85.

36 Smith, Christie M., Reparation and Reconciliation: The Rise and Fall of Integrated Higher Education (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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