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“Building Bridges, Not Fences”: A History of Civic Engagement at Private Black Colleges and Universities, 1944–1965

  • Marybeth Gasman (a1), Dorsey Spencer (a2) and Cecilia Orphan (a3)

Extract

HBCUs traditionally build bridges, not fences, for their neighbors.

–Barbara S. Frankle

In its truest sense, higher education is aimed at fostering academic achievement and educating students for good and productive citizenship. With this purpose in mind, over the past few decades there has been a proliferation of research on civic engagement. Although substantial in size and reach, the civic engagement literature is limited in terms of depth and scope. Many scholars working in this area have sought to define civic engagement as well as service learning; service learning is believed to lead to greater civic engagement and to increase educational attainment by some scholars and practitioners. Of note, this scholarship aims to defend civic engagement by providing a philosophical justification for it, reclaiming the historic civic purpose of higher education, or providing an assessment of student outcomes, including participation in protest, voting knowledge and behavior, and the impact of service learning. The civic engagement literature also demonstrates the level of engagement among undergraduate students and provides in-depth case studies of college and university initiatives to engage local communities throughout the nation. Scholars of civic engagement have focused on many different types of majority institutions, including small private colleges, state universities, land grant institutions, and private research universities. Most of these studies draw on how the unique histories of these various sectors of higher education position them for civic engagement work as well as the institutional efforts to engage local communities.

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References

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1 Frankle, Barbara S., “LeMoyne-Owen College: Using Institutional Context for Curriculum Change,” in Public Work and the Academy: An Academic Administrator's Guide to Civic Engagement and Service-Learning, eds. Langseth, Mark, Platter, William M., and Dillon, Scott (Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc, 2004), 166.

2 Einfeld, Aaron and Collins, Denise, “The Relationships between Service-Learning, Social Justice, Multicultural Competence, and Civic Engagement,” Journal of College Student Development 49, no. 2 (March/April 2008): 95109; Kezar, Adrianna, “Assessing Community Service Learning: Are We Identifying the Right Outcomes?,” About Campus 7, no. 2 (2002): 14–20; Kezar, Adrianna and Rhoads, Robert A., “The Dynamic Tensions of Service-Learning in Higher Education,” Journal of Higher Education 72, no. 2 (2001): 148–71; Alexander Astin and Linda Sax, “How Undergraduates Are Affected by Service Participation,” Journal of College Student Development 39, no. 3 (1998): 251–63.

3 For example, Colby, A., Beaumont, E., Ehrlich, T., and Corngold, J., Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Responsible Political Engagement (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003); Erhlich, Thomas, ed. Civic Responsibility and Higher Education (Westport, CT: The American Council of Education and Oryx Press, 2000); Barbara Jacoby, Service-Learning in Higher Education: Concepts and Practices (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).

4 Einfeld, and Collins, , “The Relationships Between Service-Learning, Social Justice, Multicultural Competence, and Civic Engagement,” 95–109; Bridges, Brian, Cambridge, Barbara, Kuh, George, and Leegwater, Lacey, “Student Engagement at Minority-Serving Institutions: Emerging Lessons from the BEAMs Project,” New Directions for Institutional Research 2005, no. 125 (Spring 2005): 2543.

5 Peters, Scott, Democracy and Higher Education: Traditions and Stories of Civic Engagement (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2010). Talcott, William, Modern Universities, Absent Citizenship? Historical Perspectives. Working paper/Circle Series, Visiting Scholar (College Park: University of Maryland, 2005).

6 Majority institutions are those that have a history of serving White students. Astin and Sax, “How Undergraduates are Affected by Service Participation,” 251–63; Anne Colby, Thomas Ehrlich, Elizabeth Beaumont, and Jason Stephens, Educating Citizens: Preparing America's Undergraduates for Lives of Moral and Civic Responsibility (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003); Hartley, Matthew, “Reclaiming the Democratic Purpose of American Higher Education: Tracing the Trajectory of the Civic Engagement Movement,” Learning and Teaching 2, no. 3 (2009): 1130; Jacoby, Barbara, Service-Learning in Higher Education: Concepts and Practices (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996).

7 Astin, Alexander, “Promoting the Cause of Citizenship,” Chronicle of Higher Education (October 1995): B1–B2; Hollander, Elizabeth and Boyte, Henry, “Wingspread Declaration on Renewing the Civic Mission of the American Research University,” June 1999, http://www.compact.org/civic/Wingspread/Wingspread.html; Gorgol, Laura, “Moving Beyond Outcomes: New Step for Civic Engagement Research,” Unpublished Manuscript (2010); Brukardt, Mary Jane, Holland, Barbara, Percy, Stephen, and Zimpher, Nancy, Calling the Question: Is Higher Education Ready to Commit to Community Engagement? (Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, 2004). Astin and Sax, “How Undergraduates Are Affected by Service Participation,” 251–63; Sax, Linda, Astin, Alexander, and Avalos, Juan, “Long-Term Effects of Volunteerism During the Undergraduate Years,” Review of Higher Education 22, no. 2 (Winter 1999): 187202. Bringle, Robert, Phillips, Mindy, and Hudson, Michael, The Measure of Service-Learning: Research Scales to Assess Student Experiences (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004); Colby, Anne, Beaumont, Elizabeth, Ehrlich, Thomas, and Corngold, Josh, Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Responsible Political Engagement (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007).

9 Ash, Sarah, Clayton, Patti, and Atkinson, Maxine, “Integrating Reflection and Assessment to Capture and Improve Student Learning,” Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 11, no. 2 (Spring 2005): 4960; Eyler, Janet, Giles, Dwight, Stenson, Christine, and Gray, Charlene, At a Glance: What We Know about the Effects of Service-Learning on College Students, Faculty, Institutions and Communities, 1993–2000, 3rd ed. (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, 2001); Gorgol, , “Moving Beyond Outcomes: New Steps for Civic Engagement Research.”

10 Saltmarsh, John and Hartley, Matthew, To Serve a Larger Purpose: Engagement for Democracy and the Transformation of Higher Education (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2011); Harkavy, Ira and Hartley, Matthew, Universities in Partnership with Schools: Strategies for Youth Development and Community Renewal (San Francisco: Wiley Press, 2009), Maurrasse, David, Beyond the Campus: now Colleges and Universities Form Partnerships with their Communities (New York: Routledge, 2001). Hartley, Matthew, “Idealism and Compromise and the Civic Engagement Movement,” in To Serve a Larger Purpose: Engagement for Democracy and the Transformation of Higher Education, eds. Saltmarsh, John and Hartley, Matthew (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011), 2749; Hartley, , “Reclaiming the Democratic Purpose of American Higher Education,” 11–30. For the purposes of HBCUs, see Anderson, James D., The Education of Blacks in the South, 1865–1930 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1988); Gasman, Marybeth, Envisioning Black Colleges: A History of the United Negro College Fund (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).

11 Saltmarsh, and Hartley, , To Serve a Larger Purpose; Adrianna Kezar, Tony Chambers and John Burkhardt, Higher Education for the Public Good: Emerging Voices from a National Movement (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005); Colby, et al., Educating Citizens.

12 Hartley, Matthew, “Idealism and Compromise and the Civic Engagement Movement,” 27–49. Hartley, , “Reclaiming the Democratic Purpose of American Higher Education,” 11–30.

13 Ibid.

14 Frankle, , “LeMoyne-Owen College,” 165–79. Gloria Dean Randle Scott, “A Historically Black College Perspective,” in Civic Responsibility and Higher Education, ed. Erhlich, Thomas (Washington, DC: The American Council on Education and The Oryx Press, 2000), 263–79; Holmes, Barbara DeVeaux, “Encouraging Multiple Forms of Scholarly Excellence at Albany State University,” in Faculty Priorities Reconsidered: Rewarding Multiple Forms of Scholarship, eds. O'Meara, KerryAnn and Rice, R. Eugene (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005); Mason, Ronald, Jr., “Enhancing Higher Learning through Engagement in Community and Human Development,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 11, no. 3 (2006): 15–21; Lomax, Michael L., “Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Bringing a Tradition of Engagement into the Twenty-First Century,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 11, no. 3 (2006):

15 Scott, Randle, “A Historically Black College Perspective,” 263–79.

16 Egerton, John, Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation before the Civil Rights Movement in the South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Tate, Gayle and Randolph, Lewis, The Black Urban Community: From Dusk till Dawn (New York: Palgrave, 2006); Morris, Aldon D., The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change (New York: Free Press, 2006); W. E. B. Du Bois, Greene, Dan, and Driver, Edwin, eds., W. E. B. Du Bois on Sociology and the Black Community (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

17 Hill, Melvin B., “Historically Black Colleges and Universities and their Communities,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 11, no. 3 (2006) (special issue).

18 Orphan, Cecilia, American Democracy Project 2013. (http://www.aascu.org/meetings/adptdc14); Hartley, “Reclaiming the Democratic Purpose of American Higher Education,” 11–30.

19 Mason, Ronald, Jr., “Enhancing Higher Learning through Engagement in Community and Human Development,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 11, no. 3 (July 2006), 15.

20 Ibid, 20.

21 Holmes, Barbara DeVeaux, “Encouraging Multiple Forms of Scholarly Excellence at Albany State University,” in Faculty Priorities Reconsidered: Rewarding Multiple Forms of Scholarship, eds. O'Meara, Kerry Ann and Rice, R. Eugene (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2005).

22 Frankle, , “LeMoyne-Owen College,” 165–79.

23 Lomax, , “Historically Black Colleges and Universities,” 5–13.

24 Lott, Joy Williamson, Radicalizing the Ebony Tower: Black Colleges and the Black Freedom Struggle in Mississippi (New York: Teachers College Press, 2008).

25 Rozman, Stephen L. and Roberts, Gloria, “Tougaloo College and the HBCU Faculty Development Network: Networking for Mutual Reinforcement,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 11, no. 3 (2006): 8193.

26 Evans, Stephanie, Taylor, Colette, Dunlap, Michelle, and Miller, DeMond, African Americans and Community Engagement in Higher Education: Community Service, Service-Learning, and Community-Based Research (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009).

27 Farmer, G. Lawrence, “African American Males’ Civic Engagement: The Importance of Social Organization Involvement and Friendship Diversity,” Journal of African American Studies 10, no. 2 (Fall 2006): 5168.

28 Greene, Gwenda R., “Cultivating Reciprocity: The Guiding Framework for Benedict College in Partnership with the Community to Garner Economic and Community Growth,” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 11, no. 3 (July 2007): 5363.

29 Ibid.

30 Stewart, Thomas J., Prinzinger, Joseph M., Dias, James K., Bowden, John T., Salley, James K., and Smith, Albert E., “The Economic Impact of a Historically Black College Upon its Local Community,” Journal of Negro Education 58, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 232–42; Greene, , “Cultivating Reciprocity,” 53–63.

31 Gallo, Ralph and Davis, Ronnie, “Research on the Impact of HBCUs on African American Conmunities,” Metropolitan Universities 19, no. 3 (2008): 102120; Gallo, Ralph and Davis, Ronnie, “The Impact of Town-Gown Relationships on the Sustainability of African American Communities: An Examination of the Role of HBCUs,” Journal of African American Studies 13, no. 4 ((2009): 509–23; Goel, Ankur, Lovett, Willie, Patten, Robert, and Wilkins, Robert, “Black Neighborhoods Becoming Black Cities: Group Empowerment, Local Control and the Implications of Being Darker than Brown,” Harvard Civil Rights Civil Liberties Law Review 23, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 415–81; Green, Rodney, Bennett, Maybelle, Kurban, Haydar, Morris, Lorenzo, and Verharen, Charles, “Making Community Indicators Accessible through the Census Information Center: Howard University, Portals to the Community, and the New American University,” Community Quality-of-Life Indicators, Social Indicators Research Series 28 (2006): 249–66; Green, , “Cultivating Reciprocity,” 53–63.

32 Stewart, et al., “The Economic Impact of a Historically Black College Upon Its Local Community,” 232–42. For more current figures, please see annual reports from 1990 to 2011: Orangeburg Community Economic Commission, South Carolina (http://www.ocdc.com).

34 Thompson, Daniel, Private Black Colleges at the Crossroads (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1973). Drewry, Henry N. and Doermann, Humphrey, Stand and Prosper: Private Black Colleges and Their Students (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

35 Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges.

36 Frazier, E. Franklin, Black Bourgeoisie (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957).

37 Quote is located at oralhistory.org. Need more information for this citation; Additional sources on oral history include Marybeth Gasman, The History of U.S. Higher Education: Methods for Uncovering the Past (New York: Routledge, 2010).

38 Anderson, , The Education of Blacks in the South; Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges.

39 Anderson, , The Education of Blacks in the South; Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges.

40 Gasman, Marybeth, “Bois, W.E.B. Du and Johnson, Charles S.: Differing Views on the Role of Philanthropy in Higher Education,” History of Education Quarterly 42, no. 4 (December 2002): 493516.

41 W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Talented Tenth,” in The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of Today, eds. Washington, Booker T., W. E. B. Du Bois, Dunbar, Paul, and Chesnutt, Charles (New York: James Pott & Company, 1903), 3375.

42 Bieze, Michael and Gasman, Marybeth, Booker T. Washington Rediscovered (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012); Harlan, Louis R., Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983).

43 Gasman, , “W.E.B. Du Bois and Charles S. Johnson,” 493–516.

44 Bieze, and Gasman, , Booker T. Washington Rediscovered.

45 Washington, Booker T., Up from Slavery (New York: A.L. Burt, 1901). Washington, Booker T., “Atlanta Compromise,” Cotton States and International Exposition, September 1895, Atlanta, GA; Harlan, , Booker T. Washington; Gasman, “Bois, W.E.B. Du and Johnson, Charles S.,” 493–516.

46 W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Hampton Idea,” in The Education of Black People, Ten Critiques, 1906–1960, ed. Aptheker, Herbert (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), 515.

47 Gasman, Marybeth and McMickens, Tryan, “Liberal or Professional Education? The Missions of Public Black Colleges and Universities and Their Impact on the Future of African Americans,” SOULS: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 12, no. 3 (July–September, 2010): 286305.

48 Lott, , Radicalizing the Ebony Tower; Gasman, Marybeth, “Perceptions of Black College Presidents: Sorting through Stereotypes and Reality to Gain a Complex Picture,” American Educational Research Journal 48, no. 4 (August 2011): 836–70.

49 Lott, , Radicalizing the Ebony Tower.

50 Gasman, Marybeth and Epstein, Edward, “Modern Art in the Old South: The Role of the Arts in Fisk University's Campus Curriculum,” Educational Researcher 31, no. 2, (March 2002): 1320.

51 Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges. Brown, R. Khari and Brown, Ronald E., “Faith and Works: Church-Based Social Capital Resources and African American Political Activism,” Social Issues 82, no. 2 (December 2003): 617–41; Harris, F., “Black Churches and Civic Traditions: Outreach, Activism, and the Politics of Public Funding of Faith-Based Ministries,” Trinity College Paper Series, 2007. For a comprehensive report, please see U.S. Government (2011). Tie Economic Impact of the Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Technical Report, which details the contributions of these institutions over time.

52 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective,” 264; Minchin, Timothy J., “Black Activism, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the Racial Integration of the Southern Textile Industry” Journal of Southern History 65, no. 4 (November 1999): 809–44; Jennings, James, The Politics of Black Empowerment: The Transformation of Black Activism in Urban America (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2000). For a detailed description of the role of historically white institutions in their communities, please see Thelin, John R., A History of American Higher Education (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011).

53 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective,” 265.

54 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1953.

55 Hutcheson, Philo, Gasman, Marybeth, and Sanders-McMurtry, Kijua, “Understanding Resistance: Agency in the Face of Oppression within Higher Education, 1940–1960,” Journal of Higher Education (2011); Gasman, and Epstein, , “Modern Art in the Old South,” 13–20.

56 UNCF institutional Survey, 1950–1966; Hutcheson, , Gasman, , and Sanders-McMurtry, , “Understanding Resistance.”

57 Alsup, Peggy, oral history interview by author, 31 March 1999.

58 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

59 Bloom, John and Willard, Michael Nevin, Sports Matters: Race, Recreation, and Culture (New York: New York University Press, 2002).

60 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

61 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1955.

62 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1955.

63 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1963.

64 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1958.

65 It was quite common for well-known actors to call for civil rights action. They used their celebrity as a bully pulpit to spur change and unity within Black communities. For another example, see Ruth Feldstein, “‘I Don't Trust You Anymore”: Nina Simone, Culture, and Black Activism in the 1960s,” Journal of American History 91, no. 4 (2005): 1349–79.

66 Woodward, C. Vann, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1955).

67 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1961.

68 Brisbane, Robert H., Black Activism: Racial Revolution in the United States, 1954–1970 (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1974); Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges; Hutcheson, , Gasman, , and Sanders-McMurtry, , “Understanding Resistance.”

69 Player, Willa, interview by Mike Railings, National Public Radio, 31 July 1997. See also Gasman, “Perceptions of Black College Presidents.”

70 Player, Willa, oral history interview, Greensboro Voices, 3 December 1979.

71 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

72 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1962–1963.

75 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1963.

74 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1963.

75 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950–1953.

76 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1953.

77 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

78 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1965.

79 Xavier University Unites Blacks,” Louisiana Weekly, 17 February 1965, 7A.

80 Xavier University Unites Blacks,” Louisiana Weekly. For Du Bois's perspective, see W. E. B. Du Bois, The Education of Black People.

81 Prince Rivers, oral history interview, 1999, 2003, transcript.

82 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

83 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1952.

84 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951–1952.

85 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1953.

86 Students Perform with Local Symphony,” Courtboullion (New Orleans, LA) 27 September 1953, p. 3, Dillard University Archives, New Orleans, Louisiana.

87 Ibid. Gasman, and Epstein, , “Modern Art in the Old South,” 13–20.

88 For a detailed explanation of the taboo nature of social interaction between blacks and whites during the 1940s through 1960s, see Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges; see also Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow; Egerton, John, Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation Before the Civil Right Movement in the South (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995).

89 Chafe, William H., Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981).

90 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951.

91 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1957.

92 LeMoyne Owen Faculty Newsletter, located in LeMoyne Owen College library, Memphis, Tennessee.

93 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1956.

94 Student comments are lifted from surveys completed about the Inter-racial Weekend. Surveys are located in the Paine College Library, Augusta, Georgia.

95 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1956.

96 Brown, and Brown, , “Faith and Works,” 617–41; Harris, F., “Black Churches and Civic Traditions: Outreach, Activism, and the Politics of Public Funding of Faith-Based Ministries,” Trinity College Paper Series, 2007.

97 Anderson, , The Education of Blacks in the South; Daniel Thompson, Private Black Colleges at the Crossroads (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1973).

98 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

99 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

100 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

101 Quoted material is from Dillard University Archives, New Orleans, Louisiana. See teacher education files.

102 Savitt, Todd, Race and Medicine in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century America (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2006); Gasman, Marybeth with Sullivan, Louis W., The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).

103 Joseph, L.Johnson, “The Supply of Negro Health Personnel-Physicians,” Journal of Negro Education 19, no. 3 (Summer 1949): 346–56.

104 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

105 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951.

106 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951.

107 Gasman, The Morehouse Mystique.

108 Livingstone College Nursing Faculty Meeting Notes, 1952, Livingstone College Archives, Salisbury, Norm Carolina.

109 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1952.

110 Savitt, , Race and Medicine in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century America; Gasman, The Morehouse Mystique.

111 Gasman, , The Morehouse Mystique.

112 Chafe, , Civilities and Civil Rights; Brisbane, , Black Activism.

113 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective,” 265. For another detailed exploration of HBCU student involvement in the civil rights movement, see Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights.

114 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1952.

115 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1964.

116 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1965.

117 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective,” 268.

118 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective”; Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2003).

119 Mays, Benjamin E., “What's Ahead for Our Negro Schools,” Together 6, (1962): 3233; see also, Mays, Born to Rebel.

120 See Atlanta World, the local Black Newspaper, “Morris Brown Fraternity Plans for the Future of Blacks,” Atlanta World, 3 November 1954.

121 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

122 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1957–1963.

123 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1957.

124 Gasman, “Envisioning Black Colleges”; Gasman, “Perceptions of Black College Presidents.”

125 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1961; Gasman, , “Perceptions of Black College Presidents”; Scott, “A Historically Black College Perspective.” For a detailed discussion, see Willa Player, oral history interview, Greensboro Voices, 3 December 1979.

126 Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights.

127 See Player, Willa, oral history interview, Greensboro Voices, 3 December 3, 1979; Player, Willa, “The Case for the Liberal Arts College,” United Negro College Fund Papers, 1964; Player, Willa, “Report to the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees,” 1960, Bennett College Archives, Greensboro, North Carolina. Gasman, “Perceptions of Black College Presidents.”

128 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1963.

129 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1966.

130 Woodward, , The Strange Career of Jim Crow; Egerton, , Speak Now Against the Day.

131 Lott, , Radicalizing the Ebony Tower.

132 Lefever, Harry, Undaunted by the Fight: Spelman College and the Civil Rights Movement, 1957–1967 (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2005). Marion Wright Edelman is quoted by Harry Lefever in his book.

133 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950–1952.

134 Atlanta University Library Community Survey, years 1950–1959, located in the Robert Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center, Atlanta, GA.

135 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951–1952.

136 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950–1960.

137 Details of the organization and operation of the library system as well as myriad newspaper clippings and testimonials from those in the community can be found at the Paine College library, Augusta, Georgia.

138 For an extensive discussion of the lack of libraries in Black communities, see Marybeth Gasman, “Sisters in Service: African American Sororities and the Philanthropic Support of Education,” in Women, Philanthropy, and Education, ed. Walton, Andrea (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 194214.

139 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950–1962.

140 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1957–1958.

141 The notion of “reading” and racial uplift is beautifully depicted in Heather Williams’ book, Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).

142 UNCF institutional Survey, 1950–1966.

143 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

144 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

145 Woodward, , The Strange Career of Jim Crow; Egerton, , Speak Now Against the Day; Bois, Du, “The Talented Tenth,” 33–75.

146 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950; See also Bennett College faculty meeting minutes between January 1950 and December 1950 for a thorough discussion of this topic. These minutes are located in the Bennett College archives, Greensboro, North Carolina.

147 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951.

148 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

149 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1950.

150 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1955.

151 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1953–1955.

152 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1957.

153 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1966.

154 Anderson, , The Education of Blacks in the South; Woodward, , The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Walker, Vanessa Siddle, Their Highest Potential: An African American School Community in the Segregated South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).

155 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1951.

156 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1955.

157 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1958.

158 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954–1955.

159 See internal faculty and staff newsletters and memorandum from 1952 to 1956, which detail enrollment and application increases as a result of community members visiting campus for the various programs. See Bennett College archives, Greensboro, North Carolina.

160 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1952.

161 See the Banner, Bennett, October 6, 1952, located online at North Carolina Digital Newspaper Archive (http://www.digitalnc.org/collections/newspapers).

162 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1965–1966.

163 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1954.

164 UNCF institutional Survey, 1955.

165 UNCF Institutional Survey, 1961.

166 Gasman, , Envisioning Black Colleges.

167 Hartley, , “Reclaiming the Democratic Purposes of American Higher Education.”

168 Morris, , The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement.

169 Scott, , “A Historically Black College Perspective.”

170 American Association of Colleges & Universities, A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy's Future. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges & Universities, 2012. (http://www.aacu.org/civic_learning/crucible/documents/crucible_508F.pdf).

171 Fish, Stanley, Save the World on Your Own Time (New York: Oxford University

172 Morris, , The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement.

173 Compact, Campus, Indicators of Engagement Project, 2011.

174 Boyte, Harry and Kari, Nancy, Building America: The Democratic Promise of Public Work (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University, 1996).

175 Kim, Mikyong Minsun and Conrad, Clifton, “The Impact of Historically Black Colleges and Universities On the Academic Success of African-American Students,” Research in Higher Education 47, no. 4, (June 2006): 399427.

176 http://ncoc.net/unemployment, accessed August 1, 2013.

177 Rodin, Judith, The University and Urban Revival: Out of the Ivory Tower and into the Streets (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007); Gasman, Marybeth and Hilton, Adriel, “Mixed Motivations, Mixed Results: A History of Law, Interest Convergence, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities,” Teachers College Record 114 (July 2012): 134; Hutcheson, , Gasman, , and Sanders-McMurtry, , “Understanding Resistance;” Gasman and McMickens, “Liberal or Professional Education?,” 286–305.

She is the author of Educating a Diverse Nation: Lessons from Minority Serving Institutions (Harvard University Press, 2015) with Clif Conrad and Envisioning Black Colleges: A History of the United Negro College Fund (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).

He earned an undergraduate degree at Temple University and a master's degree at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

She earned her Ph.D. in higher education from the University of Pennsylvania. Cecilia also served as the director of the American Democracy Project, which focuses on civic engagement.

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History of Education Quarterly
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