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Map Drawing, Graphic Literacy, and Pedagogy in the Early Republic

  • Susan Schulten


Students in the early republic commonly stitched, drew, and painted maps of their states, nation, and world as part of their educations. Map drawing and geography were regarded as particularly appropriate subjects for girls, both as a pathway to literacy and as a means of demonstrating accomplishment. Many young girls exposed to map work in their own educations went on to become teachers themselves and carried these practices with them into an ever-growing national network of female academies and seminaries. These school maps and related penmanship journals also reveal a network and set of teaching practices around graphic literacy that has drawn little attention from historians. By drawing their country, students were making the nation manifest, inscribing its abstract boundaries and administrative units, and visualizing territory that most would never see firsthand. Map drawing was part of an intensely graphic education that significantly influenced reformers such as Emma Willard, though it also drew criticism from subsequent educators.

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1 1816 Litchfield Female Academy Summer Catalog, Litchfield Female Academy Collection, 1787–1927, Litchfield Historical Society (hereafter LHS).

2 Chester's diary reproduced in Vanderpoel, Emily Noyes, More Chronicles of a Pioneer School from 1792 to 1833 (New York: Cadmus Book Shop, 1927), 192. Her model was “An Improved Map of the United States,” one of the few published during the War of 1812; see W. Shelton and Thomas Kensett, “An Improved Map of the United States” (Cheshire, CT: A. Doolittle, engraver, 1813).

3 This article is based on a study of more than a hundred maps made by about seventy-five individuals, 15 percent of whom were boys. Most measured about 30 x 50 cm and are located in private collections as well as with the American Antiquarian Society (hereafter AAS), the Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library (hereafter BPL), the David Rumsey Map Collection at Stanford University (hereafter DRM), LHS, the New York Public Library Map Collection, the Osher Map Library at the University of Southern Maine (hereafter OML), the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, NC (hereafter MESDA), and the MacLean Collection (hereafter MMC). These materials surface continually, and I am grateful to dealers who have archived their trade in these items.

4 For a call to go beyond prescriptive literature, see Woyshner, Christine A., “Introduction: Histories of Social Studies Thought and Practice in Schools and Communities,” Theory and Research in Social Education 37, no. 4 (Sept. 2009), 426–31.

5 Nash, Margaret, Women's Education in the United States, 1780–1840 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005); McMahon, Lucia, Mere Equals: the Paradox of Educated Women in the Early American Republic (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012), 3 ; Kelley, Mary, Learning to Stand and Speak: Women, Education, and Public Life in America's Republic (Chapel Hill: published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by the University of North Carolina Press, 2006), 28, 66111 ; Beadie, Nancy and Tolley, Kim, eds., Chartered Schools: Two Hundred Years of Independent Academies in the United States, 1727–1925 (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2002), 21 ; and Tolley, Kim, “The Rise of the Academies: Continuity or Change?History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 225–39.

6 Vanderpoel, Emily Noyes, Chronicles of a Pioneer School from 1792 to 1833, ed. Buel, Elizabeth C. Barney (Cambridge, MA: University Press, 1903), 259 .

7 Willard curriculum from “A Boarding School for Young Ladies,” Plattsburgh Republican, April 30, 1814, 1, reproduced in Emma Willard, Lucy Townsend, Barbara Wiley, and University Publications of America, The Papers of Emma Hart Willard, 1787–1870, Research Collections in Women's Studies, Bethesda, MD, available from the UPA Collection from LexisNexis, 2004, reel 12, frames 239–40 (hereafter Willard Papers). On Willard's vision, see Beadie, Nancy, “Emma Willard's Idea Put to the Test: The Consequences of State Support of Female Education in New York, 1819–67,” History of Education Quarterly 33, no. 4 (Winter 1993), 545–46; and Allen, Gloria Seaman, A Maryland Sampling: Girlhood Embroidery, 1738–1860 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 2007), 184 .

8 Tolley, Kim, “Science for Ladies, Classics for Gentlemen: A Comparative Analysis of Scientific Subjects in the Curricula of Boys’ and Girls’ Secondary Schools in the United States, 1794–1850,” History of Education Quarterly 36, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 136 .

9 Vanderpoel, More Chronicles, 209.

10 Pinkerton, John, A Modern Atlas from the First and Best Authorities (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson and Son, 1818), 3 .

11 Tolley, Kim, The Science Education of American Girls: a Historical Perspective (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003), 1354 , especially 17–20.

12 Nash, Margaret A., “Cultivating the Powers of Human Beings: Gendered Perspectives on Curricula and Pedagogy in Academies of the New Republic,” History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 239–50.

13 Most common in New York and Maryland, embroidered maps typically depicted a double-hemispheric world, the Western Hemisphere, North America, the United States, or New York State. Ring, Betty, Girlhood Embroidery: American Samplers and Pictorial Needlework, 1650–1850, vol. 2 (New York: Knopf, 1993), 312 .

14 Alice Lee Shippen to Nancy Hume Shippen Livingston, in Nancy Shippen: Her Journal Book ed. Armes, Ethel, (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1935), 4143 .

15 New York Daily Advertiser, Dec. 9, 1791, 3.

16 Allen, A Maryland Sampling, 27; Sally Dodge, “Map Sampler of Boston Harbour,” Feb. 27 1800, Boston Rare Maps,

17 On embroidered globes, see Tyner, Judith, Stitching the World: Embroidered Maps and Women's Geographical Education (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015). The earliest map sampler of the United States is by Hannah Cockburn, completed in 1808, held by the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA. For an image see, Brückner, Martin, The Geographic Revolution in Early America: Maps, Literacy, and National Identity (Chapel Hill, published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 138 . On ornamental work and the study of history, geography, and literature, see Beadie, “Emma Willard's Idea,” 545–46 and McMahon, Mere Equals, 24.

18 McMahon, Mere Equals, 26.

19 Ibid. Raymond attended Lucy Burnap's Woodstock academy.

20 Aside from citations here, for female education, see Woody, Thomas, A History of Women's Education in the United States (New York: Lancaster Science Press, 1929); Beadie, Nancy, “Academy Students in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: Social Geography, Demography, and the Culture of Academy Attendance,” History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 251–62; Leslie, Bruce, “Where Have All the Academies Gone?History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 262–70; and Lynn Templeton Brickley, “Sarah Pierce's Litchfield Female Academy, 1792–1833” (EdD diss., Harvard University, 1985).

21 Allen, A Maryland Sampling, 184; Harriet Hayles, untitled map, 1795, MESDA, Acc. 2351; and Vanderpoel, Chronicles, 48–53.

22 Ganter, Granville, “Mistress of Her Art: Anne Laura Clarke, Traveling Lecturer of the 1820s,” New England Quarterly 87, no. 4 (Dec. 2014), 720 .

23 American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, Virginia, Dec. 14, 1819, 3. In MESDA Craftsman Collection, ID 1776.

24 Coon, Charles L., North Carolina Schools and Academies, 1790–1840: A Documentary History (Raleigh, NC: Edwards and Broughton, 1915), 300 .

25 Elizabeth Female Academy information from Knight, Edward V., A Documentary History of Education in the South Before 1860, vol. 4 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1953), 391–95.

26 School catalogs and flyers, including those referenced here, are available through “American Broadsides and Ephemera (1749–1900)”

27 Coon, North Carolina Schools and Academies, 487–90.

28 Melvin Wright map of Vermont, ca. 1840, Clements Map Library, University of Michigan; Bradford Scott maps, 1816, DRM; and Lewis Woodruff map of the United States, LHS. Many other male students made detailed state maps.

29 For descriptions of LFA competitions, see Vanderpoel, More Chronicles, 103; merit ribbons can be found in the LHS collections. In October 1814, Linda Raymond participated in a public examination of student compositions, paintings, needlework, and maps, the culmination of the year's work at Lucy Burnap's academy in Woodstock; see McMahon, Mere Equals, 32; and Elizabeth Hartt embroidered map, 51 x 56 cm, MESDA, Acc. 4977.1. On accomplishment and performance, see Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak, 96–100.

30 Catharine Sargent, “A Mercator's Chart,” 1791, 41 x 51 cm, digitally archived at BPL,

31 Charles Lothrop, “The World from the Latest Discoveries,” 1797, 24 x 36 cm, Skinner Auctioneers and Appraisers,; Juliana Carpenter, “Map of the World,” 1825, 46 x 69 cm, digitally archived at BPL,; and Thankful Vincent, “The World,” 1823, 42 x 54 cm, digitally archived at BPL See also Martha Anne Love, “Map of the World,” 1831, Boston Rare Maps,

32 Sally Bartholomew map, 37 x 48 cm, from the Dennis Gurtz collection. Bartholomew's and Scott's maps were likely modeled on Cummings, Jacob A., School Atlas to Cummings’ Ancient & Modern Geography (Boston: Cummings & Hilliard, 1815). Cummings sold his atlas with the maps bound together or loose to accommodate the needs of teachers. Demand was particularly high in New England, where Scott likely drew his maps. Stiles, Spelman, and Earle maps, AAS. Stiles modeled on Shelton and Kensett. The size, nomenclature, and contours of Earle's map mark her model as William Norman, “A New Map of the United States Including Part of Louisiana,” William Norman, 1807) digitally archived at BPL Many map publishers adopted an American prime meridian in the 1810s and 1820s, influencing students such as Mary Johonnot (BPL), Stiles, and Story to do the same in their map exercises.

33 Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak, 78.

34 Letters between Committee of Arrangements of MFA and Emma Willard, July 5 and 6, 1816. Willard Papers, reel 9, frames 658–659.

35 Lucretia Deming maps, LHS. The maps of Matthew Cary were mostly unchanged since 1795; see Carey's General Atlas (Philadelphia, Matthew Cary, 1811).

36 Ogden's map, LHS. An example of mimicry can be found in an unsigned student map meticulously replicating Simeon DeWitt's 1804 map of New York, MMC, SID 28547. Ogden's comments from Vanderpoel, Chronicles, 170. On the longer school day, see Tolley, Chartered Schools, 18.

37 Morse, Sidney Edwards, Modern Atlas. Adapted to Morse's New School Geography (Boston: J. H. A. Frost, 1822). For other maps based on Morse, see Anonymous, “Map of the United States,” ca. 1820s, DRM,, and Eliza S. Ordway, “Map of the United States,” 1829, DRM,; Martha Story, “United States,” ca. 1820s, MMC, SID 26356; and Lucy Tenney, map of Massachusetts, MMC, SID 2302. Tenney's map was guided by one of Osgood Carleton's several maps of the same published between 1798 and 1802. See, for example, Osgood Carleton, “Map of Massachusetts Proper, Compiled from Actual Surveys,” 1801, DRM,

38 Mary Hall, “Map of the Northern Part of the United States and the Southern Part of the Canadas,” 1814, 36 x 47 cm, OML, #926; and Emily Hill, “Map of the United States of America,” 1820, OML, #2398.

39 Thomas Nye, “Map of Massachusetts,” 1834, 22 x 30 cm, AAS. Other maps attentive to lettering include Maria Symonds, “United States,” 1831, DRM; and Hannah B. French “United States,” 1830, Boston Rare Maps, For a strongly gendered view of penmanship, see Thornton, Tamara Plotkin, Handwriting in America: A Cultural History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996), 4271 . The student maps of this article challenge these assumptions of handwriting as a rigidly gendered activity.

40 Celeste Babin, “Mappemonde Projetee,” 1839, BPL; Marianne Hunt's atlas is entitled Cours de Geographie, 1844, DRM,; Frances Bowen, “General Atlas,” 1810, DRM,; and Mary Ann Thompson, untitled county school atlas ca. 1800, Philip Burden Collection. The Burden collection includes several other contemporary British schoolgirl examples.

41 Emma Willard to William Coggswell, Jan. 10, 1842, 4, Education Collection, box 2a, folder 7, Sophia Smith Collection: Women's History Archives at Smith College, Smith College Libraries (hereafter Sophia Smith Collection).

42 Ibid.

43 On Pierce's view of geography as cultivating memory, see her Address at the Close of School, Oct. 29, 1818, in Vanderpoel, Chronicles, 177–78.

44 For example, see Betsey Clark, “Mechanical Views of the Faculties of the Soul,” 1800; Marian Lewis, “Chart of the History of the World,” ca. 1814; and Eliza Ogden, “History of the Kings of England,” 1816, all LHS.

45 Ganter, “Mistress of Her Art,” 719–20.

46 Edgeworth, Maria and Edgeworth, Richard Lovell, Practical Education (London: printed for J. Johnson, St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1798), 417–30, 423. Gaultier, Abbé, Complete Course of Geography, by Means of Instructive Games, 2nd ed. (London: Abbé Gaultier, 1795).

47 Willard to Coggswell, Jan. 10, 1842, 16. Sophia Smith Collection; and Schulten, Susan, “Emma Willard and the Graphic Foundations of American History,” Journal of Historical Geography 33, no. 3 (July 2007), 542–64.

48 Willard to Coggswell, Jan. 10, 1842, 1–2. For a description of Eliza Henshaw's Middlebury journal, see Dobkin Family Collection of Feminism, Glenn Horowitz Bookseller,; Eliza Henshaw to Emma Willard, Willard Papers; Fairbanks, Mary Mason, Emma Willard and Her Pupils: or, Fifty years of Troy Female Seminary (New York: Margaret Sage, 1898), 186 . On Willard's texts, see Schulten, Susan, Mapping the Nation: History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2012), 1140 ; and Schulten, “Emma Willard and the Graphic Foundations of American History.”

49 Caroline Burroughs's maps guided by Morse's, Jedidiah American Gazetteer (Boston: printed at the Presses of S. Hall, and Thomas & Andrews, 1797). Caroline Burroughs Journal, n.d., OML, #7480; Catharine Cook Journal, 1818, OML, #1809–4; Harriet Baker Journal, 1819, DRM; and Frances Henshaw Journal, 1823, DRM. Josiah Dunham ran WFA from 1816 to 1821 before leaving for Lexington, Kentucky, to found the Lafayette Female Academy.

50 Morse, Jedidiah, Geography Made Easy: Being an Abridgment of the American Universal Geography (Boston: Thomas & Andrews. J. T. Buckingham, printer, 1807).

51 Kelly, Catherine E., “Reading and the Problem of Accomplishment,” in Reading Women: Literacy, Authorship, and Culture in the Atlantic World, 1500–1800, ed. Hackel, Heidi Brayman and Kelly, Catherine E. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009), 124–44, 130; and Opal, J. M., “Exciting Emulation: Academies and the Transformation of the Rural North, 1780s to 1820s,” Journal of American History 91, no. 2 (Sept. 2004), 445–70.

52 Richards, Penny, “‘Could I but Mark Out My Own Map of Life’: Educated Women Embracing Cartography in the Nineteenth-Century American South,” Cartographica 39, no. 3 (Fall 2004), 12fn4. On calligraphy books, see Thornton, Handwriting in America, 10–11.

53 On Jedidiah Morse's word maps, see Brückner, The Geographic Revolution in Early America, 114.

54 Nowviskie, Bethany, “‘Inventing the Map’ in the Digital Humanities (a Young Lady's Primer),” Poetess Archive Journal 2, no. 1 (Dec. 2010); and Schulten, Mapping the Nation, 11–40. Early graphic arrangement of information apparent in Sally Tate's journal from the 1790s, perhaps inspired by needlework samplers. Tate's manuscript from Mr. Wyman's Boarding-School, Medford, MA, Doyle New York Auction, lot 97, sold April 11, 2011

55 Huntington, Eleazer, An Introduction to the Art of Penmanship (Hartford, CT: Eleazer Huntington, 1816). Huntington also issued an atlas in the 1820s. On his penmanship journals, see Nash, Ray, American Penmanship, 1800–1950: A History of Writing and a Bibliography of Copybooks from Jenkins to Spencer (Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1969).

56 Stiles's father was impressed with his daughter's education at Fiske Seminary. John Stiles to Lydia Stiles, June 1 1820 and June 8, 1820, in Stiles correspondence, AAS. The map of Mary Anne Russell is at the Historical Society of Cheshire County, Keene, NH. I thank Alan Rumrill for Russell's map, though he acknowledges no direct evidence that it was created while she was at the seminary. See also, Huber, Carol et al. , With Needle and Brush: Schoolgirl Embroidery from the Connecticut River Valley, 1740–1840 (Old Lyme, CT: Florence Griswold Museum, published in association with Wesleyan University Press, 2011), 10 .

57 On Cortland Academy, see Goodwin, Hermon Camp, Pioneer History; or, Cortland County and the Border Wars of New York (New York: A. B. Burdick, 1859). On informal teaching networks, see Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak, 86–87.

58 Gilmore-Lehne, William J., Reading Becomes a Necessity of Life: Material and Cultural Life in Rural New England, 1780–1835 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989); Brückner, The Geographical Revolution, 4.

59 Drucker, Johanna, Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014); Roman History Map,” in Woodbridge, William C. and Willard, Emma, Universal Geography, Ancient and Modern; On the Principles of Comparison and Classification (Hartford, CT: Oliver D. Cooke & Sons, 1824). The student who aided Willard with the atlas was probably Eliza Henshaw, who taught at Troy in the early 1830s.

60 Ganter, “Mistress of Her Art,” 735–36.

61 Annual report presented to the Trustees of the Elizabeth Female Academy, Mississippi by Mrs. C. M. Thayer, Governess, November 30, 1826,” in Mayes, Edward, History of Education in Mississippi (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1899), 43 ; Knight, A Documentary History of Education, 391–95; Scott, Anne Firor, “‘The Ever-Widening Circle’: The Diffusion of Feminist Values from the Troy Female Seminary, 1822–1872,” History of Education Quarterly 19, no. 1 (Spring 1979), 325 ; and Beadie, “Emma Willard's Idea.”

62 On Willard's “antiverbal” emphasis on visual and spatial skills, see Stevens, Edward, Grammar of the Machine: Technical Literacy and Early Industrial Expansion in the United States (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995), 140–46. By the 1860s, Willard had sold one million copies of her texts. Callcott, G., History in the United States 1800–1860 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970), 89 .

63 Phelps, Almira H. Lincoln, Lectures to Young Ladies, Comprising Outlines and Applications of the Different Branches of Female Education (Boston: Carter, Hendee, 1833), 118 .

64 Ibid., 118–19. Phelps separated “accomplishments” out of the standard academic curriculum at her own school. Helen Buss Mitchell, “‘The North and South Here Meet’: Almira Hart Phelps and the Patapsco Female Institute, 1841–1856” (PhD diss., University of Maryland, 1990), 127.

65 On the rise of a female curriculum modeled on colleges in the 1820s see Kelley, Mary, “Female Academies and Seminaries and Print Culture,” in Gross, Robert A. and Kelley, Mary, A History of the Book in America, vol. 2 (Chapel Hill: American Antiquarian Society and the University of North Carolina, 2010), part 5, 336–37.

66 Emerson, Joseph, Prospectus of Mr. Emerson's Female Seminary at Wethersfield, CT (Wethersfield, CT: A. Francis, 1826). Emerson educated Mary Lyon, founder of Mount Holyoke College.

67 McMahon, Mere Equals, 24–25.

68 Emerson, Prospectus, 35.

69 W. C. Woodbridge, “Elementary Instruction in Geography,” American Annals of Education and Instruction (March 1834), 115–19.

70 Carter, James and Brooks, William, A Geography of Massachusetts (Boston: Hilliard, Gray, Little, and Wilkins, 1830); Arathusa Fisk, “Worcester County,” 1834, AAS.

71 On the attempts—however unsuccessful—to reform geography teaching in later decades, see Schulten, Susan, The Geographical Imagination in America, 1880–1950 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), 92118 ; and Barton, Keith C., “Home Geography and the Development of Elementary Social Education, 1890–1930,” Theory and Research in Social Education 37, no. 4 (Sept. 2009), 488–89.

72 Ring, Girlhood Embroidery, 24.

73 Vanderpoel, More Chronicles, 179.

74 Willard, Emma, An Address to the Public; Particularly to the Members of the Legislature of New-York, Proposing a Plan for Improving Female Education (Middlebury, VT: J. W. Copeland, 1819), 21 .

75 The maps of Lydia Weeks and Sarah Budington are in DRM collections. Fitch, George W., Fitch's Mapping Plates: Designed for Learners of Geography (New York: Sheldon, Lamport and Blakeman, 1850). Early outline maps published in London include Faden's, William Geographical Exercises: Calculated to Facilitate the Study of Geography (London: printed for the proprietor, 1777); Patteson, Edward, A General and Classical Atlas: Accompanied with a Concise Treatise on the Principles of Geography (Richmond, UK: printed for the author by G. A. Wall, 1804); and Cleobury, Miss, Practical Geography: In a Series of Exercises (Nottingham, UK: J. Dunn, 1815).

76 See, for example, Fowle, William Bentley, Elementary Geography for Massachusetts Children (Boston: W. B. Fowle, 1845); Fowle, William Bentley and Franceour, Louis Benjamin, The Eye and Hand: Being a Series of Practical Lessons in Drawing (Boston, W. B. Fowle, 1849), esp. 4; and Fowle, The Teacher's Institute, or, Familiar Hints to Young Teachers (New York: W. B. Fowle, 1847), 87116 .

Type Description Title
Captions for maps 1-7

Schulten supplementary material
Captions for maps 1-7

 Word (13 KB)
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Supplementary Figure 1

Schulten supplementary material
Martha Story, “United States,” ca. 1820s. Story’s map typifies the national maps made in the 1810s and 1820s, particularly the attention to penmanship and the effort to replicate the appearance of published maps. (Map courtesy of the MacLean Map Collection.)

 Unknown (920 KB)
920 KB
Supplementary Figure 2

Schulten supplementary material
Thomas Nye, detail from “A Map of Massachusetts,” 1834. Thomas Nye’s map reminds us that boys were exposed to penmanship as well as girls. (Courtesy of American Antiquarian Society.)

 Unknown (456 KB)
456 KB
Supplementary Figure 3

Schulten supplementary material
Emily Hill, detail from “A Map of the United States of America,” 1820. Emily Hill carefully practiced different styles of calligraphy, and paid close attention to borders and river systems. (Courtesy of Osher Map Library, University of Southern Maine,

 Unknown (583 KB)
583 KB
Supplementary Figure 4

Schulten supplementary material
“The Comets,” from Frances A. Henshaw’s Book of Penmanship, 1823. The angled text of Henshaw’s penmanship journal typifies the exercise of arranging information to improve memory. (Courtesy of David Rumsey Map Collection, Stanford University.)

 Unknown (487 KB)
487 KB
Supplementary Figure 5

Schulten supplementary material
Connecticut from Harriet E. Baker’s Book of Penmanship and Maps, 1819. (Courtesy David Rumsey Map Collection, Stanford University.) Baker’s extraordinary care to design and color approximates the look of engraving in her map of Connecticut.

 Unknown (572 KB)
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Supplementary Figure 6: The cherub sketch indicates that Frances Henshaw was working directly from Huntington’s penmanship text when working her geography journal. Notice also Henshaw’s description is arranged geographically, “bounding” Virginia on all sides.

Schulten supplementary material
Virginia word map, from Frances A. Henshaw’s Book of Penmanship, 1823. (Courtesy of David Rumsey Map Collection, Stanford University.)

 Unknown (680 KB)
680 KB
Supplementary Figure 7: The cherub sketch indicates that Frances Henshaw was working directly from Huntington’s penmanship text when working her geography journal. Notice also Henshaw’s description is arranged geographically, “bounding” Virginia on all sides.

Schulten supplementary material
Title page from Eleazer Huntington, An Introduction to the Art of Penmanship (Hartford, CT: self-published, 1816).

 Unknown (640 KB)
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Map Drawing, Graphic Literacy, and Pedagogy in the Early Republic

  • Susan Schulten


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