1.Chin J. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, ed. 17. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2000.
2.Mandeli GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, ed. 5. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.
3.Caceres VM, Kim DK, Bresee JS, et al.A viral gastroenteritis outbreak associated with person-to-person spread among hospital staff. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:162–167.
4.McEvoy M, Blake W, Brown D, Green J, Cartwright R. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis on a cruise ship. Commun Dis Rep 1996;6:188–192.
5.Marshall JA, Yuen LK, Catton MG, et al.Multiple outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a Mediterranean-style restaurant. J Med Microbiol 2001;50:143–151.
6.González MF, Moreno CA, de Mateo OS, et al.Nosocomial epidemic outbreak of acute gastroenteritis by Norwalk-like virus. Med Clin (Bare) 2002;118:611–615.
7.Jiang X, Wang M, Wang K, Estes MK. Characterization of SRSVs using RT-PCR and a new antigen ELISA. Arch Virol 1995;140:363–374.
8.Fankhauser RL, Boel JS, Monroe SS, Ando T, Glass RI. Molecular epidemiology of Norwalk-like viruses in outbreak of gastroenteritis in the United States. J Infect Dis 1998;178:1571–1578.
9.Berg DE, Kohn MA, Farley TA, McFarland LM. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J Infect Dis 2000;181(suppl 2):S381–S386.
10.Patterson W, Haswell P, Fryers PT, Green J. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited. Commun Dis Rep 1997;7:101–103.
11.Becker KM, Moe CL, Southwick KL, MacCormack JN. Transmission of Norwalk virus during football game. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1223–1227.
12.Herwaldt BL, Lew JF, Moe CL, et al.Characterization of a variant strain of Norwalk virus from a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis on a cruise ship in Hawaii. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:861–866.
13.Lo SV, Connolly AM, Palmer SR, Wright D, Thomas PD, Joynson D. The role of the presymptomatic food handler in a common source outbreak of food-borne SRSV gastroenteritis in a group of hospitals. Epidemiol Infect 1994;113:513–521.
14.Götz H, Ekdahl K, Lindbäck J, de Jong B, Hedlund K, Giesecke J. Clinical spectrum and transmission characteristics of infection with Norwalk-like virus: findings from a large community outbreak in Sweden. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:622–628.
15.Miller M, Carter L, Scott K, Millard G, Lynch B, Guest C. Norwalk-like virus outbreak in Canberra: implications for infection control in aged care facilities. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:555–561.
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Norwalk-like viruses: public health consequences and outbreak management. MMWR 2001;50:1–18.
17.Le Guyader F, Estes MK, Hardy ME, et al.Evaluation of a degenerate primer for the PCR detection of human caliciviruses. Arch Virol 1996;141:2225–2235.
18.Dedman D, Laurichesse H, Caul EO, Wall PG. Surveillance of small round-structures virus (SRSV) infection in England and Wales, 1990-1995. Epidemiol Infect 1998;121:139–149.
19.Gaulin C, Levesque B, Gauvin D, Krizanova V. Outbreak of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in a school. Can J Public Health 1996;87:264–267.
20.Arnedo A, González F, Bellido J, Marti JV, Safont L, Calvo C. Food poisoning outbreak probably of viral etiology caused by Norwalk virus. Gac Sanit 1991;5:161–173.
21.Kaplan JE, Feldman R, Campbell DS, Lookabuag C, Gary GW. The frequency of a like-pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Am J Public Health 1982;72:1329–1332.
22.McCall J, Smithson R. Rapid response and strict control measures can contain a hospital outbreak of Norwalk-like virus. Commun Dis Public Health 2002;5:243–246.
23.Ando T, Noel JS, Frankhauser RL. Genetic classification of Norwalk-like viruses. J Infect Dis 2000;181:336–348.
24.Chriss A. Norwalk-like viruses: when the runs can slow you down. CMAJ 2003;168:1.
25.Godoy P, Prat A, Alseda M, Torres J, Dominguez A, Salleras L. Outbreak of foodborne disease by Norwalk-like viruses genogroup II [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Bare) 2002;119:13–15.
26.Stevenson P, McCann R, Duthie R, Glew E, Ganguli L. A hospital outbreak due to Norwalk virus. J Hosp Infect 1994;26:261–272.
27.Green J, Wright PA, Gallimore CI, Mitchell O, Morgan-Capner P, Brown DW. The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. J Hosp Infect 1998;39:39–45.
28.Augustin AK, Simor AE, Shorrock C, McCausland J. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norwalk-like virus in two long-term care facilities for the elderly. Canadian Journal of Infection Control 1995;10:111–113.
29.Cunney RJ, Costigan P, McNamara EB, et al.Investigation of an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk-like virus, using solid phase immune electron microscopy. J Hosp Infect 2000;44:113–118.
30.Itoda I, Hidai H, Kikuchi K, Yamaura H, Totsuka K. Hospital outbreak of viral gastroenteritis attributed to Norwalk-like viruses in Japan. Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 2002;76:32–40.
31.Ward J, Neill A, McCall B, Stafford R, Smith G, Davison R. Three nursing home outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus in Brisbane in 1999. Commun Dis Meli 2000;24:229–233.
32.Sair AI, D'Souza DH, Moe CL, Jaykus LA. Improved detection of human enteric viruses in foods by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 2002;100:57–69.
33.Russo PL, Spelman DW, Harrington GA, et al.Hospital outbreak of Norwalk-like virus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:576–579.
34.Chadwick PR, Beards G, Brown D, et al.Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small round structured viruses. J Hosp Infect 2000;45:1–10.