Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials, primarily involving therapeutic agents used to treat infection in humans, is considered one of the world's most pressing public health problems. Not only does such inappropriate use diminish the therapeutic benefit of essential medications, it also facilitates the development and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Antimicrobial resistance and the rise in MDROs globally are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, cross-transmission within and between healthcare settings, and increased consumption of limited patient-care resources. Despite elevated awareness, publication of guidelines on antimicrobial stewardship, and several initiatives, the proportion of resistant strains causing both health care- and community-associated infections continues to increase and the number of new antimicrobials continues to decline.
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