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Antimicrobial Stewardship—the State of the Art in 2011 Focus on Outcome and Methods

  • John E. McGowan (a1)

Antimicrobial stewardship programs attempt to optimize prescribing of these drugs to benefit both current and future patients. Recent regulatory and other incentives have led to widespread adoption of such programs. Measurements of the success of these programs have focused primarily on process measures. However, evaluation of outcome measures will be needed to ensure sustainability of these efforts. Outcome efforts to date provide some evidence for improved care of individual patients, some evidence for minimizing emergence of resistance, and ample evidence for cost reduction. Attention to evaluation methods must be increased to provide convincing evidence for the continuation of such programs.

Corresponding author
Department of Epidemiology (3041 CNR), Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (
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