de Dios, Begoña Borges, Marcio Smith, Timothy D. del Castillo, Alberto Socias, Antonia Gutiérrez, Leticia Nicolás, Jordi Lladó, Bartolomé Roche, Jose A. Díaz, Maria P. and Lladó, Yolanda 2018. Protocolo informático de manejo integral de la sepsis. Descripción de un sistema de identificación precoz. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Vol. 36, Issue. 2, p. 84.
de Dios, Begoña Borges, Marcio Smith, Timothy D. del Castillo, Alberto Socias, Antonia Gutiérrez, Leticia Nicolás, Jordi Lladó, Bartolomé Roche, Jose A. Díaz, Maria P. and Lladó, Yolanda 2018. Computerised sepsis protocol management. Description of an early warning system. Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.),
Bond, Stuart E. Chubaty, Adriana J. Adhikari, Suman Miyakis, Spiros Boutlis, Craig S. Yeo, Wilfred W. Batterham, Marijka J. Dickson, Cara McMullan, Brendan J. Mostaghim, Mona Li-Yan Hui, Samantha Clezy, Kate R. and Konecny, Pamela 2017. Outcomes of multisite antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation with a shared clinical decision support system. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 72, Issue. 7, p. 2110.
Moehring, Rebekah W. Anderson, Deverick J. Cochran, Ronda L. Hicks, Lauri A. Srinivasan, Arjun and Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth S. 2017. Expert Consensus on Metrics to Assess the Impact of Patient-Level Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Acute-Care Settings. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 64, Issue. 3, p. 377.
Müller, Martin Lehmann, Patrick and Willy, Christian 2017. „Antibiotic Stewardship“. Der Unfallchirurg, Vol. 120, Issue. 7, p. 540.
de Kraker, M.E.A. Abbas, M. Huttner, B. and Harbarth, S. 2017. Good epidemiological practice: a narrative review of appropriate scientific methods to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol. 23, Issue. 11, p. 819.
Gong, Sitang Qiu, Xiu Song, Yanyan Sun, Xin He, Yanling Chen, Yilu Li, Minqing Luo, Rui He, Liya Wei, Qing Shen, Songying Liu, Yu Zhang, Lian Zhou, Wei Huang, Ping Mai, Jianning Liu, Li Xu, Yi Liang, Huiying and Xia, Huimin 2016. Effect of Financially Punished Audit and Feedback in a Pediatric Setting in China, within an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, and as Part of an International Accreditation Process. Frontiers in Public Health, Vol. 4,
Boel, Jonas Andreasen, Viggo Jarløv, Jens Otto Østergaard, Christian Gjørup, Ida Bøggild, Nina and Arpi, Magnus 2016. Impact of antibiotic restriction on resistance levels ofEscherichia coli: a controlled interrupted time series study of a hospital-wide antibiotic stewardship programme. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 71, Issue. 7, p. 2047.
Fodero, Kristen E. Horey, Amy L. Krajewski, Michael P. Ruh, Christine A. Sellick, John A. and Mergenhagen, Kari A. 2016. Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Patient Safety in Veterans Prescribed Vancomycin. Clinical Therapeutics, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 494.
Dik, Jan-Willem H. Hendrix, Ron Poelman, Randy Niesters, Hubert G. Postma, Maarten J. Sinha, Bhanu and Friedrich, Alexander W. 2016. Measuring the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 569.
Van Parys, Jacob Stevens, Michael P. Moczygemba, Leticia R. and Pakyz, Amy L. 2016. Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Members’ Perspectives on Program Goals and National Metrics. Clinical Therapeutics, Vol. 38, Issue. 8, p. 1914.
Janowski, Andrew B. Michaels, Marian G. Martin, Judith M. and Green, Michael D. 2016. Piperacillin-Tazobactam Usage at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital: An Antimicrobial Stewardship Review. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 342.
Lai, Chung-Chih Shi, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Yen-Hsu and Wang, Fu-Der 2016. Effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs on antimicrobial usage and resistance among common gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections: A multicenter comparison. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Vol. 49, Issue. 1, p. 74.
Bedini, Andrea De Maria, Nicola Del Buono, Mariagrazia Bianchini, Marcello Mancini, Mauro Binda, Cecilia Brasacchio, Andrea Orlando, Gabriella Franceschini, Erica Meschiari, Marianna Sartini, Alessandro Zona, Stefano Paioli, Serena Villa, Erica Gyssens, Inge C. and Mussini, Cristina 2016. Antimicrobial stewardship in a Gastroenterology Department: Impact on antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome. Digestive and Liver Disease, Vol. 48, Issue. 10, p. 1142.
Timbrook, Tristan T. Hurst, John M. and Bosso, John A. 2016. Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Antimicrobial Utilization, Bacterial Susceptibilities, and Financial Expenditures at an Academic Medical Center. Hospital Pharmacy, Vol. 51, Issue. 9, p. 703.
Chow, Angela L. P. Lye, David C. and Arah, Onyebuchi A. 2015. Mortality Benefits of Antibiotic Computerised Decision Support System: Modifying Effects of Age. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue. 1,
Çakmakçi, M. 2015. Antibiotic stewardship programmes and the surgeon's role. Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol. 89, Issue. 4, p. 264.
Chow, Angela Lye, David C.B. and Arah, Onyebuchi A. 2015. Psychosocial determinants of physicians’ acceptance of recommendations by antibiotic computerised decision support systems: A mixed methods study. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 45, Issue. 3, p. 295.
Boel, J. Søgaard, M. Andreasen, V. Jarløv, J. O. and Arpi, M. 2015. Evaluating antibiotic stewardship programs in patients with bacteremia using administrative data: a cohort study. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Vol. 34, Issue. 7, p. 1475.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs attempt to optimize prescribing of these drugs to benefit both current and future patients. Recent regulatory and other incentives have led to widespread adoption of such programs. Measurements of the success of these programs have focused primarily on process measures. However, evaluation of outcome measures will be needed to ensure sustainability of these efforts. Outcome efforts to date provide some evidence for improved care of individual patients, some evidence for minimizing emergence of resistance, and ample evidence for cost reduction. Attention to evaluation methods must be increased to provide convincing evidence for the continuation of such programs.
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