Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Ebola Preparedness Resources for Acute-Care Hospitals in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Study of Costs, Benefits, and Challenges

  • Michael A. Smit (a1) (a2), Kenneth A. Rasinski (a3), Barbara I. Braun (a3), Linda L. Kusek (a3), Aaron M. Milstone (a4) (a5), Daniel J. Morgan (a6) (a7) and Leonard A. Mermel (a1) (a2)...
Abstract
OBJECTIVE

To assess resource allocation and costs associated with US hospitals preparing for the possible spread of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the United States.

METHODS

A survey was sent to a stratified national probability sample (n=750) of US general medical/surgical hospitals selected from the American Hospital Association (AHA) list of hospitals. The survey was also sent to all children’s general hospitals listed by the AHA (n=60). The survey assessed EVD preparation supply costs and overtime staff hours. The average national wage was multiplied by labor hours to calculate overtime labor costs. Additional information collected included challenges, benefits, and perceived value of EVD preparedness activities.

RESULTS

The average amount spent by hospitals on combined supply and overtime labor costs was $80,461 (n=133; 95% confidence interval [CI], $56,502–$104,419). Multivariate analysis indicated that small hospitals (mean, $76,167) spent more on staff overtime costs per 100 beds than large hospitals (mean, $15,737; P<.0001). The overall cost for acute-care hospitals in the United States to prepare for possible EVD cases was estimated to be $361,108,968. The leading challenge was difficulty obtaining supplies from vendors due to shortages (83%; 95% CI, 78%–88%) and the greatest benefit was improved knowledge about personal protective equipment (89%; 95% CI, 85%–93%).

CONCLUSIONS

The financial impact of EVD preparedness activities was substantial. Overtime cost in smaller hospitals was >3 times that in larger hospitals. Planning for emerging infectious disease identification, triage, and management should be conducted at regional and national levels in the United States to facilitate efficient and appropriate allocation of resources in acute-care facilities.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:405–410

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence to Dr Leonard Mermel, Department of Epidemiology and Infection Control, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy St, Providence, RI 02903 (lmermel@lifespan.org).
Footnotes
Hide All

PREVIOUS PRESENTATION: The preliminary results of this work were presented at the 2016 Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America National Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, May 18–21, 2016.

Footnotes
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

6. DM Narasimhulu , V Edwards , C Chazotte , D Bhatt , J Weedon , H Minkoff . Healthcare workers’ attitudes toward patients with Ebola virus disease in the United States. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016;3:ofv192.

7. PM Polgreen , S Santibanez , LM Koonin , ME Rupp , SE Beekmann , C Del Rio . Infectious disease physician assessment of hospital preparedness for Ebola virus disease. Open Forum Infect Dis 2015;2:ofv087.

8. JJ Haverkort , AL Minderhoud , JD Wind , LP Leenen , AI Hoepelman , PM Ellerbroek . Hospital preparations for viral hemorrhagic fever patients and experience gained from admission of an Ebola patient. Emerg Infect Dis 2016;22:184191.

10. DJ Morgan , B Braun , AM Milstone , et al. Lessons learned from hospital Ebola preparation. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:627631.

11. APIC survey finds US healthcare facilities are more prepared to confront Ebola compared to last year: staffing and infection control resources remain issues. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:1.

12. JA Herberg , M Emonts , M Jacobs , A Riordan . UK preparedness for children with Ebola infection. Arch Dis Child 2015;100:421423.

13. MD de Jong , C Reusken , P Horby , et al. Preparedness for admission of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease in European hospitals: a survey, August–September 2014. Euro Surveill 2014;19:20980.

14. JJ Herstein , PD Biddinger , CS Kraft , et al. Current capabilities and capacity of Ebola treatment centers in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:313318.

15. KJ Cummings , MJ Choi , EJ Esswein , et al. Addressing infection prevention and control in the first U.S. community hospital to care for patients with Ebola virus disease: context for national recommendations and future strategies. Ann Intern Med 2016;165:4149.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Smit supplementary material
Smit supplementary material 1

 PDF (347 KB)
347 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 81 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1158 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th March 2017 - 27th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.