McDonald, LC, Owings, M, Jernigan, DB.
Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003. EmergInfect Dis
Loo, VG, Poirier, L, Miller, MA, et al.
A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med
Pepin, J, Valiquette, L, Alary, M-E, et al.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. CMAJ
Zilberberg, MD, Shorr, AF, Kollef, MH. Increase in adult Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations and case-fatality rate, United States, 2000-2005. Emerg Infect Dis
McDonald, LC, Killgore, GE, Thompson, A, et al.
An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
. N Engl J Med
Warny, M, Pepin, J, Fang, A, et al.
Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet
Fawley, WN, Underwood, S, Freeman, J, et al.
Efficacy of hospital cleaning agents and germicides against epidemic Clostridium difficile strains. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Thomas, C, Stevenson, M, Riley, TV. Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. J Antimi-crob Chemother
McFarland, LV. Renewed interest in a difficult disease: Clostridium difficile infections—epidemiology and current treatment strategies. Curr Opin Gastroenterol
Chandler, RE, Hedberg, K, Cienlak, PR.
Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Oregon: increasing incidence and hospital-level risk factors. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Ricciardi, R, Harriman, K, Baxter, NN, Hartman, LK, Town, RJ, Virnig, BA. Predictors of Clostridium difficile colitis infections in hospitals. Epidemiol Infect
Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations among US adults, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis
Archibald, LK, Banerjee, SN, Jarvis, WR. Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987-2001. J Infect Dis
Jagai, J, Naumova, E.
Clostridium difficile-associated disease in the elderly, United States. Emerg Infect Dis
Muto, CA, Pokrywka, M, Shutt, K, et al.
A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Muto, CA, Blank, MK, Marsh, JW, et al.
Control of an outbreak of infection with the hypervirulent Clostridium difficile BI strain in a university hospital using a comprehensive “bundle” approach. Clin Infect Dis
Hubert, B, Loo, VG, Bourgault, AM, et al.
A portrait of the geographic dissemination of the Clostridium difficile North American pulsed-field strain and the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Quebec. Clin Infect Dis
Gilca, R, Loo, VG, Hubert, B, et al.
Changing incidence of C. Difficile-associated diarrhea in Quebec is associated with changing strain prevalence. In: Abstracts of the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;2007:336. Abstract K-603.
Charlson, ME, Pompei, P, Ales, KL, MacKenzie, CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis
Deyo, RA, Cherkin, DC, Ciol, MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol
Serfling, RE. Methods for current statistical analysis of excess pneumonia-influenza deaths. Public Health Rep
Simonsen, L, Clarke, MJ, Williamson, GD, Stroup, DF, Arden, NH, Schonberger, LB. The impact of influenza epidemics on mortality: introducing a severity index. Am J Public Health
Alfa, MJ, Du, T, Beda, G. Survey of incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in Canadian hospitals and diagnostic approaches. J Clin Microbiol
Hyland, M, Ofner-Agostini, M, Miller, M, et al.
N-CDAD in Canada: results of the Canadian nosocomial infection surveillance program 1997 N-CDAD prevalence surveillance project. Can J Infect Dis
Tan, ET, Robertson, CA, Brynildsen, S, Bresnitz, E, Tan, C, McDonald, C.
Clostridium difficile-associated disease in New Jersey hospitals, 2000-2004. Emerg Infect Dis
Ricciardi, R, Rothenberger, DA, Madoff, RD, Baxter, NN. Increasing prevalence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis in hospitalized patients in the United States. Arch Surg
2007;142(7):624–631; discussion 631.
Dubberke, ER, Reske, KA, Yan, Y, Olsen, MA, McDonald, LC, Fraser, VJ.
Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a setting of endemicity: identification of novel risk factors. Clin Infect Dis
Goorhuis, A, van Dissel, JT, Kuijper, EJ. Novel risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a setting of endemicity?
Clin Infect Dis
2008;47(3):429–430; author reply 430-431.
Dubberke, ER, Gending, DN, Classen, D, et al.
Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Polgreen, PM, Yang, M, Bohnett, LC, Cavanaugh, JE. A time-series analysis of Clostridium difficile and its seasonal association with influenza. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Valiquette, L, Cossette, B, Garant, MP, Diab, H, Pepin, J. Impact of a reduction in the use of high-risk antibiotics on the course of an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease caused by the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain. Clin Infect Dis
Weiss, K, Boisvert, A, Chagnon, M, et al.
Multipronged intervention strategy to control an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its impact on the rates of CDI from 2002 to 2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
MacCannell, DR, Louie, TJ, Gregson, DB, et al.
Molecular analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 isolates from eastern and western Canada. J Clin Microbiol
Hubert, B, Gilca, R. Use administrative databases with caution. CMAJ
2009;180(1):78; author reply 78-79.
Dubberke, ER, Reske, KA, McDonald, LC, Fraser, VJ.
ICD-9 codes and surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Emerg Infect Dis
Scheurer, DB, Hicks, LS, Cook, EF, Schnipper, JL. Accuracy of ICD-9 coding for Clostridium difficile infections: a retrospective cohort. Epidemiol Infect