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Evolving Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

  • Yoona Rhee (a1) (a2), Alla Aroutcheva (a1) (a2), Bala Hota (a1) (a2), Robert A. Weinstein (a1) (a2) and Kyle J. Popovich (a1) (a2)...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections due to USA300 have become widespread in community and healthcare settings. It is unclear whether risk factors for bloodstream infections (BSIs) differ by strain type.


To examine the epidemiology of S. aureus BSIs, including USA300 and non-USA300 MRSA strains.


Retrospective observational study with molecular analysis.


Large urban public hospital.


Individuals with S. aureus BSIs from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2013.


We used electronic surveillance data to identify cases of S. aureus BSI. Available MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Poisson regression was used to evaluate changes in BSI incidence over time. Risk factor data were collected by medical chart review and logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis of risk factors.


A total of 1,015 cases of S. aureus BSIs were identified during the study period; 36% were due to MRSA. The incidence of hospital-onset (HO) MRSA BSIs decreased while that of community-onset (CO) MRSA BSIs remained stable. The rate of CO– and HO– methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections both decreased over time. More than half of HO-MRSA BSIs were due to the USA300 strain type and for 4 years, the proportion of HO-MRSA BSIs due to USA300 exceeded 60%. On multivariate analysis, current or former drug use was the only epidemiologic risk factor for CO- or HO-MRSA BSIs due to USA300 strains.


USA300 MRSA is endemic in communities and hospitals and certain populations (eg, those who use illicit drugs) may benefit from enhanced prevention efforts in the community.

Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1417–1422

Corresponding author
Address correspondence to Kyle J. Popovich, MD, MS, Rush University Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, 600 S Paulina St, Ste 143, Chicago, IL 60612 (
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