1.Cohen, SH, Gerding, DN, Johnson, S, et al.Clinical practice guide-lines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:431–455.
3.Dubberke, ER, Reske, KA, Olsen, MA, McDonald, LC, Fraser, VJ. Short- and long-term attributable costs of Clostridium difficile–associated disease in nonsurgical inpatients. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:497–504.
4.Freeman, J, Bauer, MP, Baines, SD, et al.The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:529–549.
5.Dubberke, ER, Butler, AM, Yokoe, DS, et al.Multicenter study of surveillance for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection by the use of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:262–268.
6.Dubberke, ER, Butler, AM, Hota, B, et al.Multicenter study of the impact of community-onset Clostridium difficile infection on surveillance for C. difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:518–525.
7.Ricciardi, R, Rothenberger, DA, Madoff, RD, Baxter, NN. Increasing prevalence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis in hospitalized patients in the United States. Arch Surg 2007;142:624–631; discussion, 631.
8.McDonald, LC, Jernigan, DB. Increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile–associated disease in U.S. acute care hospitals, 1993–2001. Paper presented at: 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; April 18, 2004; Alexandria, VA.
9.Miller, BA, Chen, LF, Sexton, DJ, Anderson, DJ. Comparison of the burdens of hospital-onset, healthcare facility-associated Clostridium difficile infection and of healthcare-associated infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:387–390.
10.Bartlett, IG. Clostridium difficile: progress and challenges. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010;1213:62–69.
11.McDonald, LC, Killgore, GE, Thompson, A, et al.An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2433–2441.
12.Warny, M, Pepin, I, Fang, A, et al.Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet 2005;366:1079–1084.
13.Loo, VG, Poirier, L, Miller, MA, et al.A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2442–2449.
14.Pepin, J, Saheb, N, Coulombe, MA, et al.Emergence of fluoro-quinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1254–1260.
15.Birgand, G, Miliani, K, Carbonne, A, Astagneau, P. Is high consumption of antibiotics associated with Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction-ribotype 027 infections in France? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:302–305.
16.Loo, VG, Bourgault, AM, Poirier, L, et al.Host and pathogen factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1693–1703.
17.McDonald, LC, Coignard, B, Dubberke, E, Song, X, Horan, T, Kutty, PK. Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile–associated disease. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:140–145.
18.Carroll, KC. Tests for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: the next generation. Anaerobe 2011;17:170–174.
19.Chapin, KC, Dickenson, RA, Wu, F, Andrea, SB. Comparison of five assays for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin. J Mol Diagn 2011;13:395–400.
20.Selvaraju, SB, Gripka, M, Estes, K, Nguyen, A, Jackson, MA, Selvarangan, R. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in pediatric stool samples: an evaluation of Quik Check Complete Antigen assay, BD GeneOhm Cdiff PCR, and ProGastro Cd PCR assays. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;71:224–229.
21.Longtin, Y, Trottier, S, Brochu, G, et al.Impact of the type of diagnostic assay on Clostridium difficile infection and complication rates in a mandatory reporting program. Clin Infect Dis 2013;56:67–73.
22.Fong, KS, Fatica, C, Hall, G, et al.Impact of PCR testing for Clostridium difficile on incident rates and potential on public reporting: is the playing field level? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:932–933.
23.Gould, G, Edwards, J, Cohen, J, et al.Effect of nucleic acid amplification testing on population-based incidence rates of Clostridium difficile infection. Paper presented at: ID Week; October 17–22, 2012; San Diego, CA.
24.Goldenberg, SD, Price, NM, Tucker, D, Wade, P, French, GL. Mandatory reporting and improvements in diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection: an incompatible dichotomy? J Infect 2011;62:363–370.
25.Anderson, DJ, Miller, BA, Chen, LF, et al.The network approach for prevention of healthcare-associated infections: long-term effect of participation in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:315–322.
26.Benneyan, JC. Statistical quality control methods in infection control and hospital epidemiology, part II: chart use, statistical properties, and research issues. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:265–283.
27.Naumova, EN, Must, A, Laird, NM. Tutorial in biostatistics: evaluating the impact of “critical periods” in longitudinal studies of growth using piecewise mixed effects models. Int J Epidemiol 2001;30:1332–1341.
28.Eastwood, K, Else, P, Charlett, A, Wilcox, M. Comparison of nine commercially available Clostridium difficile toxin detection assays, a real-time PCR assay for C. difficile tcdB, and a glutamate dehydrogenase detection assay to cytotoxin testing and cytotoxigenic culture methods. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:3211–3217.
29.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:157–162.
31.Dudeck, M, Malpiedi, P, Edwards, J, Fridkin, S, McDonald, LC, Sievert, S. Risk adjustment for healthcare facility-onset C. difficile infection and MRSA bacteremia reporting in NHSN. Presented at: ID Week; October 17–22, 2012; San Diego, CA.
32.Goldenberg, SD, French, GL. Diagnostic testing for Clostridium difficile: a comprehensive survey of laboratories in England. J Hosp Infect 2011;79:4–7.