1. MT Brady . Health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:268–275.
3. BH Stover , ST Shulman , DF Bratcher , MT Brady , GL Levine , WR Jarvis . Nosocomial infection rates in US children's hospitals' neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 2001;29:152–157.
4. J Hentschel , B Brungger , K Studi , K Muhlemann . Prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections in a Swiss NICU: low risk of pneumonia on nasal continuous positive airway pressure? Infection 2005;33:350–355.
5. F Schwab , C Geffers , S Barwolff , H Ruden , P Gastmeier . Reducing neo-natal nosocomial bloodstream infections through participation in a national surveillance system. J Hosp Infect 2007;65:319–325.
7. H Sax , S Hugonnet , S Harbarth , P Herrault , D Pittet . Variation in nosocomial infection prevalence according to patient care setting: a hospital-wide survey. J Hosp Infect 2001;48:27–32.
9. GA Contreras-Cuellar , AL Leal-Castro , R Prieto , AL Carvajal-Hermida . Device-associated infections in a Colombian neonatal intensive care unit. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2007;9:439–447.
10. AA El-Nawawy , MM Abd El-Fattah , HA Metwally , SS Barakat , IA Hassan . One year study of bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections among patients in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Alexandria. J Trop Pediatr 2006;52:185–191.
11. HH Balkhy , G Cunningham , FK Chew , et al. Hospital- and community-acquired infections: a point prevalence and risk factors survey in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis 2006;10:326–333.
12. RC Couto , EA Carvalho , TM Pedrosa , ER Pedroso , MC Neto , FM Biscione . A 10-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:183–189.
14. UA Mireya , PO Marti , KV Xavier , LO Cristina , MM Miguel , CM Magda . Nosocomial infections in paediatric and neonatal intensive care units. J Infect 2007;54:212–220.
16. SE Perlman , L Saiman , EL Larson . Risk factors for late-onset health care-associated bloodstream infections in patients in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:177–182.
17. KM Posfay-Barbe , DM Zerr , D Pittet . Infection control in paediatrics. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:19–31.
18. W Zingg , KM Posfay-Barbe , D Pittet . Healthcare-associated infections in neonates. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21:228–234.
19. CL Pessoa-Silva , S Hugonnet , R Pfister , et al. Reduction of health care associated infection risk in neonates by successful hand hygiene promotion. Pediatrics 2007;120:e382–e390.
20.International Neonatal Network. The CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score: a tool for assessing initial neonatal risk and comparing performance of neonatal intensive care units. Lancet 1993;342:193–198.
21. V Apgar . A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Curr Res Anesth Analg 1953;32:260–267.
22. P Eggimann , S Harbarth , MN Constantin , S Touveneau , JC Chevrolet , D Pittet . Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care on incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. Lancet 2000;355: 1864–1868.
23. TG Connell , M Rele , D Cowley , JP Buttery , N Curtis . How reliable is a negative blood culture result? volume of blood submitted for culture in routine practice in a children's hospital. Pediatrics 2007;119:891–896.
24. S Hugonnet , H Sax , P Eggimann , JC Chevrolet , D Pittet . Nosocomial bloodstream infection and clinical sepsis. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:76–81.
25. JS Garner , WR Jarvis , TG Emori , TC Horan , JM Hughes . CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128–140.
26. TC Horan , M Andrus , MA Dudeck . CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 2008;36:309–332.
27. P Eggimann , S Hugonnet , H Sax , S Touveneau , JC Chevrolet , D Pittet . Ventilator-associated pneumonia: caveats for benchmarking. Intensive Care Med 2003;29:2086–2089.
28. W Zingg , A Imhof , M Maggiorini , R Stacker , E Keller , C Ruef . Impact of a prevention strategy targeting hand hygiene and catheter care on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med 2009; 37:2167–2173.
29. W Zingg , H Sax , C Inan , et al. Hospital-wide surveillance of catheter-related bloodstream infection: from the expected to the unexpected. J Hosp Infect 2009;73:41–46.
30. J Freeman , DA Goldmann , NE Smith , DG Sidebottom , MF Epstein , R Piatt . Association of intravenous lipid emulsion and coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. N Engl J Med 1990;323:301–308.
31. A Holmes , CJ Dore , A Saraswatula , et al. Risk factors and recommendations for rate stratification for surveillance of neonatal healthcare-associated bloodstream infection. J Hosp Infect 2008;68:66–72.
32. E Nagata , AS Brito , T Matsuo . Nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit: incidence and risk factors. Am J Infect Control 2002; 30:26–31.
33. MK Chathas , JB Paton , DE Fisher . Percutaneous central venous cathe-terization: three years' experience in a neonatal intensive care unit. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:1246–1250.
34. R Clark , R Powers , R White , B Bloom , P Sanchez , DK Benjamin Jr. Prevention and treatment of nosocomial sepsis in the NICU. J Perinatal 2004;24:446–453.
35. BJ Stoll , N Hansen , AA Fanaroff , et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 2002;110:285–291.
37. V Hoang , J Sills , M Chandler , E Busalani , R Clifton-Koeppel , HD Modanlou . Percutaneously inserted central catheter for total parenteral nutrition in neonates: complications rates related to upper versus lower extremity insertion. Pediatrics 2008; 121:e1152–e1159.
38. N Ben Jaballah , A Bouziri , K Mnif , A Hamdi , A Khaldi , W Kchaou . Epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in a Tunisian pediatric intensive care unit: a 2-year prospective study. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:613–618.
39. JR Edwards , KD Peterson , ML Andrus , MA Dudeck , DA Pollock , TC Horan . National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) report, data summary for 2006 through 2007, issued November 2008. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36:609–626.
40. C Geffers , S Baerwolff , F Schwab , P Gastmeier . Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in high-risk neonates: results from the German surveillance system for very-low-birthweight infants. J Hosp Infect 2008; 68:214–221.