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Influenza Vaccination Rates and Motivators Among Healthcare Worker Groups

  • Amanda Banks Christini (a1), Kathleen A. Shutt (a2) and Karin E. Byers (a2)

The rate of influenza vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) is approximately 40%. Differences in vaccination rates among HCW groups and reasons for accepting or rejecting vaccination are poorly understood.


To determine vaccination rates and motivators among different HCW groups during the 2004-2005 influenza season.


Cross-sectional survey conducted between July 10 and September 30, 2005.


Two tertiary care teaching hospitals in an urban center.


Physicians, nurses, nursing aides, and other staff. Surveys were collected from 1,042 HCWs (response rate, 42%).


Sixty-nine percent of physicians (n = 282) and 63% of medical students (n = 145) were vaccinated, compared with 46% of nurses (n = 336), 42% of nursing aides (n = 135), and 29% of administrative personnel (n = 144). Physicians and medical students were significantly more likely to be vaccinated than all other groups (P < .0001). Pediatricians (84%) were more likely than internists (69%) and surgeons (43%) to be vaccinated (P < .0001). Among the HCWs who were vaccinated, 33.4% received the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and 66.6% received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Vaccinated HCWs were less likely than unvaccinated HCWs to report an influenza-like illness (P = .03). Vaccination with LAIV resulted in fewer episodes of influenza-like illness than did receiving no vaccine (P = .03). The most common reason for rejecting vaccination was a concern about availability. Understanding that HCWs may transmit the virus to patients correlated with vaccine acceptance (P = .0004).


Significant differences in vaccination exist among physician specialties and employee groups, and there are inadequate vaccination rates among those with the greatest amount of patient contact, potentially providing a basis for group-specific interventions.

Corresponding author
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Falk Medical Building, Suite 3-A, 3601 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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