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Institutional Control Measures to Curtail the Epidemic Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: A 4-Year Perspective

  • Matan J. Cohen (a1), Colin Block (a2), Phillip D. Levin (a3), Carmela Schwartz (a2), Ilana Gross (a2), Yuval Weiss (a4), Allon E. Moses (a2) and Shmuel Benenson (a2)...
Abstract
Objective.

To describe the implementation of an institution-wide, multiple-step intervention to curtail the epidemic spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP).

Design.

Consecutive intervention analyses.

Patients and Setting.

All patients admitted to a 775-bed tertiary care medical center in Jerusalem, Israel, from 2006 through 2010.

Interventions.

The effects of 4 interventions were assessed: (1) a policy of isolation for patients colonized or infected with CRKP in single rooms, which was started in March 2006; (2) cohorting of CRKP patients with dedicated nursing staff and screening of patients neighboring a patient newly identified as a carrier of CRKP, which was started in March 2007; (3) weekly active surveillance of intensive care unit patients, which was started during August 2008; and (4) selective surveillance of patients admitted to the emergency department, which was started in March 2009. Interrupted regression analysis and change-point analysis were used to assess the effect of each intervention on the CRKP epidemic.

Results.

Patient isolation alone failed to control the spread of CRKP, with incidence increasing to a peak of 30 new cases per 1,000 hospital beds per month. Institution of patient cohorting led to a steep decline in the incidence of CRKP acquisition (P< .001). Introduction of active surveillance interventions was followed by a decrease in the incidence of CRKP-positive clinical cultures but an increase in the incidence of CRKP-positive screening cultures. The mean prevalence of CRKP positivity for the period after cohorting began showed a statistically significant change from the mean prevalence in the preceding period (P< .001).

Conclusions.

The cohorting of patients with dedicated staff, combined with implementation of focused active surveillance, effectively terminated the epidemic spread of CRKP. Cohorting reduced cross-infection within the hospital, and active surveillance allowed for earlier detection of carrier status. Both interventions should be considered in attempts to contain a hospital epidemic.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Division of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Hadassah–Hebrew University Medical Center, POB 12000, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel (PhillipL@hadassah.org.il)
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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